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The article is devoted to the analysis of the historiographical background of the category of the so-called oriental cults/oriental religions created in the 19th century and developed by Franz Cumont. We discuss the role of this term in 20th-century historiography with the focus on the works of Tadeusz Zieliński that are important to the reception of the oriental cults metaphor. We argue that the concept of oriental cults/oriental religions in its original version is not an effective or useful research tool. However, as a historiographical concept it has fulfilled its role in a threefold way: firstly, it drew scholars’ attention to the vitality of ancient religious experience, secondly, it established the fact that Roman religion was a living organism, naturally adapted to changing political, social and cultural conditions, thirdly, it helped to understand the principles behind the construction of metaphors in the academic discourse.

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Serbia was an Ottoman province for almost four centuries; after some rebellions, the First and Second Uprising, she received the status of autonomous principality in 1830, and became independent in 1878. Due to the historical and cultural circumstances, the first stage music form was komad s pevanjem (theater play with music numbers), following with the first operas only at the beginning of the twentieth century. Contrary to the usual practice to depict “golden age” of medieval national past, like in many other traditions of national opera, the earliest Serbian operas were dedicated to the recent past and coexistence with Ottomans. Thus the operas Na uranku (At dawn, 1904) by Stanislav Binički (1872–1942), Knez Ivo od Semberije (Prince Ivo of Semberia, 1911) by Isidor Bajić (1878–1915), both based on the libretti by the leading Serbian playwright Branislav Nušić, and also Zulumćar (The Hooligan, librettists: Svetozar Ćorović and Aleksa Šantić, 1927) by Petar Krstić (1877–1957), presented Serbia from the first decades of the nineteenth century. Later Serbian operas, among which is the most significant Koštana (1931, revised in 1940 and 1948) by Petar Konjović (1883–1970), composed after the theatre play under the same name by the author Borisav Stanković, shifts the focus of exoticism, presenting a life of a south-Serbian town in 1880. Local milieu of Vranje is depicted through tragic destiny of an enchanting beauty, a Roma singer Koštana, whose exoticism is coming from her belonging to the undesirable minority. These operas show how the national identity was constructed – by libretto, music and iconography – through Oriental Self. The language (marked by numerous Turkish loan words), musical (self)presentation and visual image of the main characters of the operas are identity signifiers, which show continuity as well as perception of the Ottoman cultural imperial legacy.

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The present paper deals with the work of Albert Cohen and how it is influenced by orality. Albert Cohen was inspired by the style of the stories in the "The Book of Thousand Nights and One Night" in a way that we can call his technique ``orientalizing''. After a methodological introduction concerning the conception of orality, we discuss the indications of orality at the various structure levels of Cohen's text: the extradiegetic narrator (Cohen dictated his texts to ``the women of his life'' and used the method of improvisation), the elocutio (characters are differentiated on the basis of their utterances; the style demonstrates clichés and idiomatic expressions), the construction of the plot (the hero follows the traditional journey), and the alternation of the narrative levels (extradiegetic and diegetic). Finally, we determine the functions of orality in Cohen\'s work and the author's intention.

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The present paper examines the origin of two Tocharian animal names, assuming that they were borrowed from an oriental source. The Common Tocharian term for ‘poisonous snake, viper’ (Toch. A ārṣal, B arṣāklo) reproduces exactly the Turkic name *arsala:n ‘lion’, whereas the Tocharian B partākto ‘camel’ seems to represent a loanword from East Iranian *pardāk(u)-tā (pl.) ‘leopards’ (perhaps created by a contamination with Altaic *aktan- ‘a castrated animal’). The phonetic aspects of both derivations are unquestionable. The semantic differences may be explained by the fact that Proto-Tocharians borrowed names of two unknown exotic animals and later they wrongly identified the word with different animals, transferring the Turkish name for ‘lion’ into ‘poisonous snake, viper’ and the Iranian name for ‘leopard’ into ‘camel’. The same process is perfectly attested in Slavonic (e.g. Polish słoń ‘elephant’ < Turkish (dial.) aslan ‘lion’; Pol. wielbłąd ‘camel’ < Greek elephas, -antos ‘elephant’) and many other languages.

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growing media and production technique for containerized oriental spruce [ Picea orientalis (L.) Link.] seedling. Eastern Black Sea Forest Research Institute Publications , 11 , Trabzon, Turkey. 72 p

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. Carswell, J. (1999): China and the Middle East. Oriental Art XLV/1, pp. 2–14. Carswell J. China and the Middle East Oriental Art

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elterjedéséről [Imagined communities. Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism] . Budapest : L’Harmattan – Atelier . Andreeva , Elena 2007 Russia and Iran in the great game: Travelogues and Orientalism . London : Routledge . Ash

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par M. Paul Boyer, directeur de l’Ecole des Langues Orientales et par M. Meillet, professeur au Collège de France, la création d’une chaire de hongrois et de finnois à l’École des Langues Orientales serait de nouveau envisagée, mais, cette fois, au

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After its premiere in 1849 Ambroise Thomas’ and Thomas Sauvage’s opéra-bouffon Le caïd remained extremely successful throughout Europe. This was caused mostly because of its parodistic references to the orient in plot, scenery, libretto and music. This article examines the orientalistic features of Le caïd, which contemporary music critics perceived as comical. The reception documents are also evaluated in the context of the perception of orientalism in the nineteenth century as well as in the tradition of opéra-comique. The categories considered in the work’s analysis are the comical dimension of the orient, the opposition between France and Algeria functioning as a comic element, as well as the parody of the orientalistic Italian opera buffa.

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There exists an evident and organic connection between the various arts (for example, painting, sculpture, music, dance, literature, film etc.), which can be expressed with the term inter-art . This paper will be concerned with the relation between music and literature, more precisely, it examines the manifestation and the parallels of individual musical forms and renderings in literary text. The selected prose—Marguerite Yourcenar’s Oriental Tales —will be the focus of this textual-musical analysis, concentrating on those stylistic characteristics and text formatting tools that exhibit musical features in their properties and their structure. Even up to the present, analyses of literary texts have employed musical terms, for instance, polyphony, rhythm, cadence, pedal point, etc. This study will explore the textual manifestation of the following musical terms: rhythm, upbeat, non legato, imitation, tempo, lento, accelerando, retardation, polyphony, a cappella, soloist and figuration.

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