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This paper examines the possibility of a correlation between orthodoxy and brick burials, also investigating burials with brick and stone. Among the peoples inhabiting the Carpathian Basin the custom of brick burials had no direct antecedent. Based on our research brick burials seem to have been taken over from the Balkan, while concerning burials with stone the former Upper Hungary played an important role as well. The tradition can be traced back to an antique custom, persistent in orthodoxy, with the purpose of preserving the ephemeral and perishable body for eternity and assuring the deceased’s peace.

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Nach der ansatzweisen Hervorhebung einiger theologischer Grundsätze, die für das soziale Selbstverständnis der Orthodoxie von Bedeutung sind, zeigt die Verfasserin deren weitere Entfaltung in der patriotischen Lehre und in der russischen religiösphilosophischen Literatur. Eine Schilderung der historischen Entwicklung des Staat-Kirche- Verhältnisses in Russland zeigt und hilft nachzuvollziehen, inwieweit die „Symphonie“ beider Mächte der Ostkirche einen politischen Freiraum gewährt und ihre sozial-ethische Tradition geprägt hat. Nach einem Überblick über die Folgen der Gorbatschow’schen Perestroika für die Identität der Orthodoxie und die Wahrnehmung ihrer neuen sozialpolitischen Aufgaben wird aufgezeigt, wie innerhalb weniger Jahre nach dem Umbruch die Kirche ihre gesellschaftliche Rolle behauptet und wie sie sich nach und nach zur Staatskirche entwickelt hat. Das anschließende Kapitel stellt den historischen Teil des eigentlich diakonischen Dienstes der orthodoxen Kirche von der frühchristlichen diakonischen Tradition der Klöster bis zum Wohlfahrtsstaat der letzten russischen Zaren dar. Eine kurze Übersicht gebührt auch der nichtorthodoxen Diakonie im russischen Staat. Die Arbeit schließt mit der Analyse der derzeitigen Entwicklung der Wohltätigkeit, die sich der Erfahrung nach auf die Caritasarbeit beschränkt. In den vergangenen Jahren, seit die russische Gesellschaft in einer Demokratie lebt, haben sich die Rahmenbedingungen des kirchlich-diakonischen Dienstes wesentlich verändert.

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A tanulmány a Hutsebout-féle vallásos attitűdskála (Post-Critical Belief Scale) hazai alkalmazhatóságát vizsgálja. Bemutatja a skálát, történeti előzményeit, elméleti alapjait és validálásának folyamatát. A skála magyar változatának reliabilitását és validitását itemanalízissel és az alskálák közötti korrelációk vizsgálatával végeztük, majd az eredményeket az eredeti skála hasonló vizsgálatának eredményeivel vetettük egybe. A vizsgálat eredményei a skála hazai alkalmazhatóságát igazolják.

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During most of the Soviet era, it was considered ideologically suspect — and anti-nationalistic — to perform, compose, or study any kind of sacred music. How some composers who identified with Orthodoxy conveyed their spirituality through their art in spite of official prohibitions illuminates an interesting way of expressing Russian identity through heritage revival. This paper explores a unique compositional technique that bridged liturgical experience and the concert stage by means of a rather calculated but inspired methodology that expanded the znamenny chant structure into a 12-tone row. Starting with his Polyphonic Concerto (1969), composer Yuriy Butsko (1938–2015) successfully adapted the old chant to modern times while preserving its religious meaning. “Butsko’s row” indigenized a transnational compositional technique (dodecaphony) by kneading principles of Russian chant scale into its core. In the midst of the Cold War a Russian composer reached out to the world by globalizing an inherent pre-Soviet musical element. At the time (though seemingly without any explicit intent on the part of the composer) this could be considered a non-conformist gesture against the regime. Paradoxically, however, Butsko’s system marked his desire to validate his music as a legitimate means of the Russian national representation. Butsko’s utilization of the znamenny chant could have supported the state, had the state patronized the Orthodoxy.

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors: Grzegorz Konat, Wanda Karpińska-Mizielińska, Kazimierz Kloc, Tadeusz Smuga and Bartosz Witkowski

The paper presents the results of a research conducted in 2014–2016, aimed at characterising the milieu of the Polish academic economists with respect to their self-identification with modern schools of economic thought. Using econometric modelling, the social variables determining the theoretical choices made by the economists themselves were identified. We found that the largest group of the Polish academic economists identifies themselves with new institutional economics. Nearly half of the respondents declared their association with heterodox approaches, while only about a quarter of the respondents showed association with economic orthodoxy. Such a structure of self-identification of the Polish academic economists with schools of economic thought distinguishes it from the ones in other European countries, such as Italy and Germany.

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When seen or presumed in the actions of gods rather than of men, phthonos (‘spite’) has traditionally been regarded as a disturbingly “primitive” form of behaviour, punishing those who have done nothing to deserve punishment (but are simply too successful or prosperous for the deity’s liking), and chiefly manifesting itself in such authors as Herodotus and such genres as Attic tragedy. After the fifth century BC, orthodoxy holds, this gives way to a more enlightened world-view; now spite is confined to humans, and the gods treat humankind more justly. But K. J. Dover once voiced his suspicion that belief in divine phthonos lingered on, and here I try to show that he was right. In the fourth century, divine phthonos itself is still spoken of (by such disparate authors as Aristophanes and Xenophon); and in later writers, from Polybius to Pausanias, the idea of tyche (‘chance’) takes on both the vocabulary and. more important, the substantive role of supernatural phthonos .

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Háttér és célkitűzések

A wulffi elméletet alapul vevő Kritika Utáni Vallásosság skála két dimenzión alapuló kiértékelése (Martos, Kézdy, Robu, Urbán és Horváth-Szabó, 2009) lehetőséget nyújt egy újfajta vallásosságtipológia létrehozására. Kutatásunk célja az volt, hogy a vallás iránti attitűdöket személyorientált statisztikai eljárások segítségével vizsgáljuk annak érdekében, hogy a valláshoz való személyes viszonyulás differenciáltabb típusait tárjuk fel.

Módszer

Hierarchikus agglomeratív és k-központú klaszteranalízist végeztünk el egy 1417 fős és egy 506 fős mintán, majd megbízhatóságát centroid módszerrel és egy újfajta validálási eljárással ellenőriztük (vö. Vargha, Bergman és Takács, 2016), majd a létrejövő klaszterstruktúrákat vizsgáltuk az értelemmegélés és értelemkeresés, valamint az aspirációk tükrében.

Eredmények

Az eredmények szerint azonosítható egy megbízható 7 klaszteres struktúra. A feltárt klasz- terek között megjelent a szakirodalom által sugallt klasszikus négy attitűddel közel azonos mintázat (Ortodoxia, Külső Kritika, Relativizmus, Második Naivitás). Három további típus kimutatása hozzájárult ahhoz, hogy a vallás iránti egyéni viszonyulásokról árnyaltabb képet tárjunk fel.

Következtetések

Az Ortodoxia és a Második Naivitás csoportba tartozók kedvezőbb, a Külső Kritika csoportjába tartozók kedvezőtlenebb pontszámot érnek el az értelemmegélés és -keresés, illetve az aspirációk tekintetében. A transzcendencia befogadása az értelmesség megélésének pozitív előrejezője.

Based on Wulffs theorem the two dimensional evaluation of the Post Critical belief scale presents a valuable opportunity to create a typology of religious attitudes. The main goal of the research was to explore different types of attitudes towards religiosity in a person-oriented framework. We performed a hierarchical agglomerative and k-means cluster analysis in two distinct samples (one with 1417 and one with 506 participants), and verified the results with centroid-method and a new validation process (Vargha, Bergman & Takács, 2016). Furthermore we examined the relationship between the given cluster structures and the presence of/ searching for meaning in life, and the intrinsic/extrinsic aspirations. The results show that there is a reliable underlying 7-cluster solution in both samples. The explored cluster structures include the classic pattern of religious attitudes (Orthodoxy, External Critique, Relativism, Second Naivité), moreover it expands the model with three additional types. The members of the Orthodoxy and Second Naivité clusters had higher scores, while the External Critique group had lower scores in the given external variables. The inclusion of transcendence is in a positive relationship with presence of meaning in life.

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Abstract

The history of the works composed by Jesuits Fulvio Androzzi (1523–1575) and Marcin Śmiglecki (1563/1564–1618) and their translations into Church Slavonic as well as the so-called “prostaâ mova” are considered as an interesting example of the spread of Catholic works among adherents of Orthodoxy in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Androzzi’s Della frequenza della communione (1579) was originally an essay on the preparation for frequent communion. Its two Polish-language editions by Stanisław Grochowski (Scieszka poboznego chrześcianina, 1600) and Szymon Wysocki (Skarbnica duchowna, 1600) served as a source for a concise funerary sample-sermon written in “prostaâ mova” which is found in the Vilna’s Orthodox Ritual (1621). An essay on theological and legal aspects of money-lending (usury) by Marcin Śmiglecki (O lichwie i trzech przedniejszych kontraktach, 1596) was partly used for drawing up a treatise on moral theology Mir s Bogom čeloveku (1669) published in the Kiev Monastery of the Caves. Both sample-sermons and treatises on moral theology were new literary genres for Orthodox tradition; their origin in the 17th century can be associated with Catholic influences. In both cases, the question of a translator from Polish into Church Slavonic and “prostaâ mova” remains open.

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The history of the ascetic works composed by the Flemish Jesuit Franz Coster (1531–1619) and their translations into Polish and “prosta mova” are considered as an interesting example of the 17th-century literary contacts in Europe and an example of the spread of Catholic works among adherents of Orthodoxy. Coster’s Bulla super forma iuramenti professionis fidei (1576) was originally intended to members of the Catholic Sodality of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Cologne. Two Polish-language reversed editions entitled Skarb duszny (1582 and 1594) served as a source of a concise text of admonition written in “prosta mova” to the confession Nauka i priklady, which can be found in two editions of the 17th-century Orthodox Vilna’s Poluustav: ca. 1637–1640 and ca. 1643–1644. The Polish translation later was taken as a basis for drawing up a manual of confession Nauka o tainie svyatogo pokayaniya (1671) published in the Kiev Monastery of the Caves. The question of the translator from Latin into Polish as well as the translator from Polish into “prosta mova” remains open.

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Brennan, G. H. (1978): Death and Taxes: An Attack on the Orthodoxy. Journal of Public Finance , 33: 201-224. Death and Taxes: An Attack on the Orthodoxy Journal of Public Finance

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