The distribution and co-localisation patterns of dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SOM) and galanin (GAL) were investigated by use of retrograde neuronal tracing and double-labelling immunofluorescence techniques in the caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG) neurons supplying the ovary of adult pigs. The existence and density of nerve fibres that are immunoreactive (IR) for the above-mentioned neuroactive substances were also evaluated. Injections of a fluorescent tracer (Fast Blue; FB) into the ovaries revealed the presence of small- (76.38%) and large-sized (23.62%) FB-positive postganglionic neurons in the CaMG. Noradrenergic FB-positive cells were simultaneously NPY- (43.38%), SOM- (18.77%) and GAL- (18.31%) IR. Of the examined FB-positive neurons, 53.49% were DβH-IR but NPY-immunonegative (IN), 79.06% were DβH-IR but SOM-IN, and 77.16% were DβH-IR but GAL-IN. Small- or large-sized subsets of traced neurons were supplied by only one or a few nerve fibres, exhibiting DβH-, NPY-, SOM- and/or GAL-IR. Our data show the specific morphological as well as immunochemical structural organisation of the sympathetic neurons in the CaMG in adult gilts. The occurrence of an abundant population of noradrenergic perikarya in the CaMG may suggest their important physiological role in the regulation of gonadal function(s) in these animals.
The aim of this study was to compare the expression levels of adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2 mRNAs and proteins in porcine ovaries during four stages (days 2 to 3, 10 to 12, 14 to 16, 17 to 19) of the oestrous cycle and to measure adiponectin plasma concentrations during the same phases of the cycle. Higher mRNA expression of adiponectin receptor 1 was detected in porcine granulosa cells than in corpora lutea and theca cells (P < 0.01). In contrast, higher gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2 occurred in newly developed and mature corpora lutea (P < 0.01). The adiponectin receptor 1 protein content was the highest in corpora lutea isolated on days 2 to 3 of the cycle and was the lowest in theca interna cells (P < 0.01). The profile of adiponectin receptor 2 protein was similar to that of adiponectin receptor 1. Adiponectin plasma concentrations were significantly higher throughout the luteal phase than in the follicular phase (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the presence of adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2 mRNAs and proteins in the porcine ovary suggests that adiponectin may directly affect ovarian functions through its own specific receptors. The expression of both receptors and adiponectin plasma concentration were dependent on hormonal status related to the stage of the cycle.
50, Tecan Austria GmbH, Grödig, Austria). Sample collection and histopathological examination Both ovaries and uterine horns of each dog were fixed in 10% neutral formalin immediately after the surgery. In order to standardise the histopathological
., Dale, P. O., Tanbo, T., Torjesen, P., Urbancsek, J., Abyholm, T. (2000) Leptin and leptin binding activity in the preovulatory follicle of polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Scan. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 60 , 649