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Crop productivity is greatly influenced by various environmental stresses, of which insect herbivory-induced biotic stress assumes much significance. As a consequence of insect herbivory, a number of plant biochemical processes involved in the tolerance mechanism are affected. Different studies have demonstrated a diverse functional role of various plant oxidative enzymes in protecting plants against biotic stress induced by insect herbivory. Comprehensive profiling of stress-associated plant oxidative enzymes is most relevant to successful molecular breeding of stress-tolerant crop plants. Thus, better understanding of the biochemical basis of plant defense mechanisms is imperative, not only from a basic science perspective, but also for biotechnology-based pest control practice. In this review, we emphasize the potential role of various oxidative enzymes in plant defense against insect herbivory.

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phenols and some oxidative enzymes in cowpea leaves infected with yellow mosaic virus. Acta Phytopathol. Entomol. Hung. 31, 191–197. Changes in total phenols and some oxidative enzymes in cowpea leaves infected with yellow mosaic

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Jayaraman, K. S., Ramanujam, M. N., Vijayaraghavan, R. K. and Vaidyanathan, C. S. (1987): Oxidative enzymes in pearl millet. Food Chemistry 24, 203 Oxidative enzymes in pearl millet. Food Chemistry

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. 2002 8 261 266 Joshi, U. N. and Gupta, P. P. (2002): Oxidative enzymes in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L.) in relation to

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Joshi, U. N. and Gupta, P. P. (2002): Oxidative enzymes in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L.) in relation to bacterial blight severity. In:Asian Congress of Mycology and Plant Pathology held at University of Mysore, Mysore, India. pp. 1

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: M Slavić, M Slavić, M Slavić, I Appiah, I Appiah, I Appiah, A Nikolić-Kokić, A Nikolić-Kokić, A Nikolić-Kokić, R Radojičić, R Radojičić, R Radojičić, DR Jones, DR Jones, DR Jones, MB Spasić, MB Spasić, MB Spasić, S Milovanović, S Milovanović, S Milovanović, D Blagojević, D Blagojević and D Blagojević

Possible interactions between nitric oxide donors, reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidative defence enzymes led us to determine the activities of anti-oxidative defence enzymes in isolated uterine smooth muscle before and after spontaneous rhythmic activity ex vivo. For our experiments we used isolated uteri from female Wistar rats. Our results showed an increase in total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Mn SOD activities in uterine smooth muscle after spontaneous contractions when compared with non-exercised uterine smooth muscle. The activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione preoxidase (GSH-Px) were also increased. No statistically significant changes in the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and CuZn SOD were found. It is known that an organism's anti-oxidative defence system (guarding against excessive reactive oxygen species generation) requires balanced increments in its individual anti-oxidative enzyme activities rather than increases in the activity of only some enzymes without increases in others. Thus, we may conclude that some adaptive responses are found in exercised uterine smooth muscle but are not complete. Therefore, our results indicate that changes in anti-oxidative enzyme activities may influence the results of the examination of substances ex vivo.

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The factors affecting the economically and sylviculturally disadvantageous formation of red heartwoord in beech are only partly understood. It has already been proved that at the color boundary of the red heart the total phenol concentration decreases sharply whereas the activity of oxidative enzymes (POD, PPO) increases substantially. The concentrations of (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin fall drastically and the five taxifolin and quercetin glycosides undergo hydrolysis. It is unclear, however, what role the flavonoids present at the boundary ((+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, taxifolin, and quercetin) have in the formation of the red chromophores of the heartwood. Understanding the transformation of the precursors and analysis of the products could result an enhanced utilization of redheartwood timber and better understanding of the physiology of red heartwood formation. In this work the role of catechins has been investigated by in-vitro transformation of (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin by extracts of beech wood enzymes. Thin-layer chromatography with scanning densitometry and acquisition of the products’ UV-visible reflection spectra proved suitable for monitoring the reactions and analyzing the products. Result have shown that rapid oxidation and oligomerization of the catechins is caused by beech enzyme extract. In-vitro products have also been compared with the chromophores of beech red heartwood. Conclusions have been drawn regarding the physiology of red heartwood formation.

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The main criterion that determines the quality of durum wheat is the degree of suitability for pasta production (pasta-processing quality). In this regard, pigment content and the quantity of oxidative enzymes of durum wheat play important roles in the quality of pasta. It is now possible to examine these features and specify their effects using recently developed genetic markers and spectrophotometric measurement techniques. In the present study, LOX enzyme activity and pigment content are determined using molecular and biochemical scanning. According to the obtained results, Gediz-75, Gdem-12, Line-19, Zenit, Line-7 and Line-20 were determined as the most suitable lines or varieties for the production of quality pasta with regard to LOX enzyme activity. As for pigment content, Kyle, Zenit, Gdem-12, Gdem-2, TMB-1 and TMB-3 showed the highest potential for the production of yellow pasta. When pigment content and LOX enzyme activity were evaluated together, the potential of the Gediz-75, Gdem-12 and Zenit durum wheat varieties and lines to produce yellow pasta products was shown to be very high.

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277 300 Hess, R., Scarpelli, D. G. & Pearse, A. E. G. (1958): The cytochemical localization of oxidative enzymes. Part II. Piridine nucleotide-linked dehydrogenase. J. Biophys

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495 509 Gollnick PD, Saltin B: Significance of skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme enhancement with endurance training. Clin. Physiol. 2, 1-12 (1982

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