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Some Portuguese verbs have two different past participles, such as, e.g., aceitar ‘accept’, with participles aceitado and aceito ; and limpar ‘clean’, with limpado and limpo . The first one in each pair mentioned is thematic, whereas the second one is athematic. While regular thematic participles all bear stress on the theme vowel, these athematic participles all bear the primary stress on the athematic stem. As the morphosyntactic category first person singular present indicative (1spi) is realized by {-o}, it normally coincides the masculine form of this athematic participle, giving rise to a syncretism between 1spi and the participle. The aim of this paper is to track the appearance of this kind of participle and the resulting syncretism in Portuguese and the changes making it possible for new participles to be formed in this way in colloquial Brazilian Portuguese.

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argument from its verb . In J. Rooryck and L. Zaring (eds.) Phrase structure and the lexicon . Dordrecht : Kluwer . 109 – 137 . Laczkó , Tibor . 2000 . A melléknévi és határozói igenévképzok [Participle forming suffixes]. In Kiefer (2000

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The paper starts to explore the interrelations within the system of categories of participle and gerund in Hungarian and Croatian as part of a planned research aiming at the complex contrastive description of parts of speech in the two languages. (This problem has hardly been studied so far in a comparative aspect.) The main tendencies and discrepancies in locating participles and gerunds in the system of parts of speech are presented on the basis of Hungarian and Croatian grammars written in the last few decades. In present-day Hungarian and Croatian descriptive linguistics these problems appear with quite different emphasis.

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The present paper discusses some special cases of gerunds in the attribute position. This phenomenon is rather exceptional, because gerunds usually are defined as being adverbs. Word class shift is generally ruled out for Turkic languages. As will be argued, there might be exceptions from this rule. In this context, constructions based on direct speech on the one hand and some going back to postverbials on the other seem especially interesting.

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] Kispál, Magdolna 1966. A vogul igenév mondattana [The syntax of Vogul participles]. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. A vogul igenév mondattana [The syntax of Vogul participles

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Lefebvre, Claire 1988. Past participle agreement in French: Agreement = case. In: David Birdsong — Jean-Pierre Montreuil (eds): Advances in Romance linguistics, 233–251. Foris, Dordrecht. Lefebvre C

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1 INTRODUCTION: GERUND AS AN “ABSOLUTIVE” It is well known that Late Latin uses the gerund as a substitute for the present participle, for example in Peregr. 15. 5, redirent mature … dicendo psalmos, where the ablative dicendo stands for

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Summary  

The adsorption kinetics of strontium ion was studied on seven natural clay samples with radioactive tracer method. The kinetic curves were determined and the kinetic data were evaluated by forms of first-rate kinetic equations with different terms, generally used for adsorption of ions of low concentration. The adsorption process was reduced to two steps. Film diffusion and participle diffusion were found in the case of five samples. Gel diffusion, film diffusion and participle diffusion were found in the case of the other two samples. The presence of significant amount of cristobalite can explain the gel phase in these two samples. The rate coefficients of steps were calculated from the kinetic curves.

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The realization of Polish passives is influenced by the specific properties that a given participle shares with its verbal base. These include: argument structure and aspectual type, the conjugation class and the phonological properties of the stem. This paper offers an account of how these variables are reflected in the exponence and morphophonology of Polish passives. The paper presents an analysis of the distribution of Passive Participle Markers -ł- /ɫ/, -t- /t/, -n- /n/ and -on- /ɔn/ in Polish within a syntactic approach to word formation (Jablonska 2004; Caha 2009, Embick & Marantz 2008). I also address the issue of the morphophonological mutations attested in Polish passive participles and postulate that they should not be given a uniform analysis. The alternation between /ɛ/ and /a/ attested in Polish ej- and e-verbs is suppletive in nature, while mutations attested in the thematic marker --~-nię- /nɔ̃/~/ɲɛ/̃ and the Passive Participle Marker -on-~-eni- /ɔn/~/ɛɲ/ are triggered by the integration of floating features into the structure of the said exponents.

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Absztrakt

A szibériai vogul és osztják kultúrától idegen fogalmakat (foglalkozások, események, cselekvések stb.) a bibliafordítók általában körülírják, magyarázzák, pl. vogul сaккон тотнэ хумыт ‘írástudók’ (tkp. ‘törvény hozó férfiak’), osztják закона утăлтăты ёх ‘írástudók’ (tkp. ‘írás tudó nép’). A fordításokban leginkább a melléknévi igenevek játszanak szerepet. A folyamatos melléknévi igenév ugyanis önmagában (elliptikusan) nem fejezi ki a személyt, ezért a cselekvést végrehajtó személyek kifejezésére az igenév után a vogul хoтпа ‘valaki, személy’, хум, oйка ‘férfi, bácsi’, osztják хoят ‘ember’, ху ‘férfi’, ill. ёх ‘emberek’ jelentésű szót használják; pl. vogul ханисьтан хум, osztják утăлтăты ху ‘tanító’ (tkp. ‘tanító férfi’). A főnév, melléknév vagy participium után a fogalom alapjelentésétől függő segédszót használnak: pl. vogul вaрмаль ‘valami, dolog’, ут ‘dolog, való’ vagy нак ‘eset, történet’, osztják вер, oт ‘dolog, tárgy’. Pl. vogul нoх-ялтум нак, osztják нoх питaм вер ‘feltámadás’ (tkp. ‘feltámadott esemény’). Várható, hogy ezek az “üres” szavak agglutinálódnak vagy egy névszóhoz -ság/-ség, vagy egy participiumhoz -ás/-és jelentésben. A grammatikalizáció leginkább a vogul ут, ill. osztják esetében indult el. A többi finnugor nyelvben is ilyen “kiüresedett” szavak váltak szuffixummá, tehát grammatizálódtak. Megállapítható, hogy a körülírás a grammatikalizáció kiinduló pontja. Ezekből a – főleg participiumos – szerkezetekből vagy ellipszissel, vagy önálló szavak agglutinálódásával keletkezhetnek rövidebb kifejezések. Az obi-ugor nyelvekben jelenleg ez a folyamat elkezdődött.

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