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Abstract  

In this study, the relationship between particle size and pyrolysis characteristics of Elbistan lignite was examined by using the thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. Lignite samples were separated into different size fractions. Experiments were conducted at non-isothermal conditions with a heating rate of 10°C min−1 under nitrogen atmosphere up to 900°C. Pyrolysis regions, maximum pyrolysis rates and characteristic peak temperatures were determined from TG/DTG curves. Thermogravimetric data were analyzed by a reaction rate model assuming first-order kinetics. Apparent activation energy (E) and Arrhenius constant (A r) of pyrolysis reaction of each particle size fraction were evaluated by applying Arrhenius kinetic model. The apparent activation energies in the essential pyrolysis region were calculated as 27.36 and 28.81 kJ mol−1 for the largest (−2360+2000 μm) and finest (−38 μm) particle sizes, respectively.

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Particle size distribution (PSD) is one of the most important fundamental physical properties of soils, as it determines their physical, chemical, mechanical, geotechnical, moreover environmental behaviour. Although the measurement of PSD with different techniques is commonly performed in soil laboratories, their automation and continuous PSD curve generation have not been solved yet.  However, there are some physical principles, various sensors and different data storing methods for measuring the density-time function. In the present paper a possible solution is introduced for the measurement of the soil particle density database as a function of settling time. The equipment used for this purpose is an areometer that is widely used e.g. for determining the sugar content of must, or the alcohol content of distilled spirits, etc. The device is equipped with patent pending capacitive sensors on the neck of the areometer. It measures the changes in the water levels nearby the neck of the areometer in 1 μm units with <10 μm accuracy. The typical water level changes are 3-5 cm, which makes possible a very accurate determination of particle density changes due to settling in particle size analysis. The measured signals are stored in the equipment's memory and can be downloaded to the controller computer via a modified USB port. Data evaluation can be carried out online or later. The large number of measured data points led to the introduction of a new evaluation method, the Method of FInite Tangents or shortly the “FIT Method”. The dispersed soil particle system is considered as the aggregation of many mono-disperse systems. From this it follows that the measured density-time function can be divided into grain size fractions with tangent lines drawn to finite, but optional points. These tangent lines are suitable for calculating the settling speed of a given fraction, as the changing speed of density is equal to the multiplication of settling speed and mass of the given grain size fraction. The settling speed of all fractions is calculable by using the Stokes law, so the mass of all of the floating fraction can be calculated. Because the soil suspension is a poly-disperse system, the measured density decrease can be considered as an integration of finite mono-disperse systems. From this, it follows that it can be interpreted as the sum of linear density vs. time functions. If the mass of each grain size fraction is known, the particle size distribution is calculable. The method is relatively easily programmed and the intervals of grain size fractions are freely adjustable, so with this program almost all types of particle size distribution are calculable, not only those being uniform. Using the appropriate controller and evaluation program, soil particle size distribution can be calculated immediately after downloading the measured data. This technique does not need more sample preparation than past methods. The automated reading lessens the manpower required for performing the measurement - which also reduces human error sources - and provides very detailed PSD data that has advantages, among others, like revealing multi-modality in the particle-size distribution.

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size of hematite has a strong effect on the thermal behavior of rutile and anatase-doped hematite ceramic systems, and the additions of rutile and anatase suppressed the crystallization of hematite [ 20 , 21 ]. The hematite with smaller particle sizes

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Summary The relationship between particle size and chemical composition of Hazro coal (origin: SE Anatolia, Turkey) has been examined by elemental analysis and by thermogravimetric pyrolysis. The chemical composition of the coal was determined by grinding sample particles physically and separating according to their size in mm by sieving. Particle size distribution of the coal and chemical composition of these fractions were given. The coal has been non-isothermally pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer to determine the kinetic factors. Thermal gravimetric (TG/DTG) experiments were performed from ambient temperature to 800°C under a nitrogen atmosphere at heating rate 10 K min-1 with five different particle size ranges. Kinetic parameters of the samples were determined using a Coats and Redfern kinetic model, assuming a first-order reaction. Depending on the particle size of the coal samples, the mean activation energy values varied between 49.1 and 84.6 kJ mol-1. The results discussed indicate that activation energies increase as the particle size decreases.

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Abstract  

This paper reports an investigation of the effect of the particle size of kaolin on its transformation to metakaolinite. Kaolin from the island of Milos was either crushed or ground in order to produce four samples with different degrees of fineness (residue at 500 m: 0–71.8%). The samples were treated thermally under different conditions in order to determine the optimum treatment conditions. The conversion of kaolinite to metakaolinite and the structural changes in the material during treatment were investigated by means of TG and XRD, respectively. Each sample was incorporated into a type I cement, at 20% by mass of cement, and the compressive strengths of the resulting blended cements were measured. It is concluded that the particle size of the raw kaolin does not affect the thermal conversion or the pozzolanic activity of the material. The use of crushed kaolin has many benefits since the furnace load can be increased, while the grinding process is needed only to reduce the size of the metakaolinite particles.

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Abstract  

Bioactive glasses have attracted considerable interest in recent years, due to their technological application, especially in biomaterials research. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used in the study of the crystallization mechanism in the SiO2–Na2O–CaO–P2O5 glass system, as a function of particle size. The curve of the bulk glass presents a slightly asymmetric crystallization peak that could be deconvoluted into two separate peaks, their separation being followed in the form of powder glasses. Also, a shift of the crystallization peaks to lower temperatures was observed with the decrease of the particle size. FTIR studies – that are confirmed by XRD measurements – proved that the different peaks could be attributed to different crystallization mechanisms. Moreover, it is presented the bioactive behavior of the specific glass as a function of particle size. The study of bioactivity is performed through the process of its immersion in simulated human blood plasma (simulated body fluid, SBF) and the subsequent examination of the development of carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the particles. The bioactive response is improved with the increase of the particle size of powders up to 80 μm and remains almost unchanged for further increase, following the specific surface to volume ratio decrease.

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Devaux M.F., Monredon F.D., Guibert D., Novales B., Abecassis J. 1998. Particle size distribution of break, sizing and middling wheat flours by laser diffraction. J. of Sci. Food Agric. 78

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References Devaux , M.F. , Monredon , F.D. , Guibert , D. , Novales , B. , Abecassis , J. 1998 . Particle size distribution of break, sizing and middling

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: V. M. Abdul Mujeeb, K. Muraleedharan, M. P. Kannan, and T. Ganga Devi

particle size on the thermal decomposition kinetics of KBrO 3 by isothermal thermogravimetry. In the present study, great emphasis is given to reliable activation energy values for the forward reaction, 2KBrO 3 → 2KBr + 3O 2 , which allows one to draw

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Armando Lucas Cherem da Cunha, Mariana Santos Lemos, Sergio Meth, Jardel Pereira Gonçalves, and Jo Dweck

article, the influence of the particle size on the pozzolanic activity of an ECAT of another Brazilian refinery was studied by thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG). Materials and methods Composites for the

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