Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used
to establish criteria for optimization of raw material selection, roasting
process, eating quality, visual appearance, and shelf-life extension of peanuts
[1-4]. DSC methods were developed as both predictive and analytical
tools to define process operating guidelines and to correlate with traditional
quality attributes of roasted peanuts [1-4].
Authors:Amanda Fernandes de Medeiros, Maria Gabriela Ferreira Rocha, Alexandre Coelho Serquiz, Richele Janaína Araújo Machado, Vanessa Cristina Oliveira Lima, Fabiana Maria Coimbra de Carvalho, Izael de Sousa Costa, Bruna Leal Lima Maciel, Elizeu Antunes dos Santos, and Ana Heloneida de Araújo Morais
, and potassium [ 1 , 4 ]. In addition, studies show bioactive health activities in peanuts, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumoral, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anti-platelet aggregation, and satietogenic [ 2 , 5 – 10 ].
Authors:M. Chaalal, S. Ouchemoukh, C. Mehenni, N. Salhi, O. Soufi, S. Ydjedd, and H. Louaileche
This study was carried out to determine the phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity of four nuts with different solvent extract. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidin were quantified. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by various in vitro tests, including ferric reducing power, phosphomolybdenum method assay, and free radical scavenging activity. The results showed that the total phenolic contents varied between 0.30 g GAE/100 g (peanuts) and 1.65 g GAE/100 g (walnuts); the flavonoid contents varied between 0.17 g QE/100 g (peanuts) and 0.41 g QE/100 g (hazelnut). The phenolic contents of four nut extracts exhibit potent antioxidant activity. Indeed, walnuts were the richest in total phenolic content and demonstrated the highest potential for overall antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing power assay (FRP), phosphomolybdenum method assay, and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA). Phenolic amounts positively correlated with antioxidant activity tested.
Discrepancies between food content and label can lead to adverse reaction in people with hypersensitivity to particular food ingredients. Over a period of more than 10 years, 171 cases of adverse reaction to food have been registered. In all cases the offending foods were compound products where the ingredients were either hidden to the consumer as a cause of inadequate labelling (73 cases) or because the food was contaminated with the ingredient (64 cases). In 34 of the cases, the ingredient was inadvertently consumed. The largest number of cases is caused by milk, followed by tree nuts, peanuts and egg. However, the most severe reactions were caused by peanuts and soy, followed by hazelnuts and milk. Soy has caused severe anaphylactic reactions leading to death in peanut allergic individuals consuming meatballs, hamburgers and kebab containing high amounts of soy protein. The presence of the offending ingredient was confirmed by analysis of the food item by immunological and DNA-based methods. In some of the cases we were able not only to detect the causative protein, but also to estimate the dose causing the allergic reaction. The doses range from less than 1 mg, causing emergency treatment, to several hundreds of mg causing stomach pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. A dose equivalent to 60 mg of casein in a sausage caused fatal anaphylaxis in a 15-year-old girl and a dose equivalent to 5.6 mg of peanut protein caused fatal anaphylaxis in a 22-year-old man.
Our knowledge on the presence of mycotoxin producing fungi and mycotoxins in food commodities in the last decade in Hungary has been summarized in this review. Among the mycotoxin producing fungi, detailed data are available for Fusarium species in cereals, and mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species in different food commodities including coffee, raisins and spices. Ochratoxin concentrations above the tolerable limit have mostly been detected in imported products such as peanuts and coffee. Ochratoxin levels close to the tolerable limit have been observed in Hungarian red peppers. Besides, ochratoxin A has also been detected in Hungarian wine, beer and raisins. Aflatoxins are usually detected in considerable quantities only in imported agricultural products in Hungary, while patulin concentrations were usually below the allowable limit in Hungarian apple juice concentrates. In the future, continuous sampling and analysis of foods and feeds are required to ensure consumer safety in Hungary.
Authors:A. Kisbenedek, Sz. Szabo, E. Polyak, Z. Breitenbach, A. Bona, L. Mark, and M. Figler
Chukwumah , Y., Walker , L., Vogler , B. & Verghese , M. (2011): In vitro absorption of dietary trans-resveratrol from boiled and roasted peanuts in Caco-2 cells. J. Agric. Fd Chem., 59 , 12323–12329.