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Mathematical Sciences] 1999 Roynette, B., Vallois, P. and Yor, M. , Pénalisations et extensions du théorème de

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280 Roynette, B., Vallois, P. and Yor, M. , Pénalisations et extensions du théorème de Pitman, relatives au mouvement brownien et à son maximum unilatère, in: Seminar on

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Summary Results of penalization of a one-dimensional Brownian motion \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $(X_t)$ \end{document}, by its one-sided maximum \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $\big(S_t=\sup_{0 \leq u \leq t}X_u\big)$ \end{document}, which were recently obtained by the authors are improved  with the consideration - in the present paper - of the asymptotic behaviour of the likewise penalized Brownian bridges of length \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $t$ \end{document}, as \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $t\rightarrow \infty$ \end{document}, or penalizations by functions of \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $(S_t,X_t)$ \end{document}, and also the study of the speed of convergence, as \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $t\rightarrow \infty$ \end{document}, of the penalized distributions at time \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $t$ \end{document}.

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. 36 1 26 DONATI-MARTIN, C. and HU, Y., Penalization of the Wiener measure and principal values. In Séminaire de Probabilités, XXXVI, volume 1801 of

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the work of many authors included in large research lines that generate many citations. This index penalizes selective researchers , that is, those producing a moderate number of high impact articles as opposed to large producers of

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at institutional level in those higher education systems characterized by high dispersion of performance within universities. We will show the possible penalization that top scientists in low-ranked universities may experience, in funding terms

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were known to the universities, with the measurements that result from adoption of the criteria for the next exercise, which were only communicated in 2010. In this manner we can ascertain if and to what extent certain universities would be penalized

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Abstract  

In this article we analyse whether university-industry relations (UIR) are penalising research activity and inhibiting university researchers’ scientific productivity and, if so, to what extent. The analysis is based on a case study of two Spanish universities. We find that UIR exercise a positive effect on university scientific productivity only when they are based on the development of R&D contracts, and when the funds obtained through these activities do not exceed 15% of the researcher’s total budget. We also find that researchers who combine research and UIR activities obtain higher funding from competitive public sources than that engage only in research. In addition, their average scientific productivity is higher and they achieve higher status within their institutions than those members of faculty who concentrate only on research.

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Abstract

World has been suffering from pandemic caused by mysterious Coronavirus. The novel member of Coronaviridae causing COVID-19 disease is named as SARS-Cov-2. Its first case was reported in China by the end of 2019, but its exponential spread has wrapped entire globe, suspended and is penalizing mankind. A retrospective meta-analysis study showed that outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and SARS-Cov-1 (Coronaviridae), influenza infection H1N1 and West-African Ebola caused lower mortality than this new pandemic COVID-19. Virus has appeared as a new human pathogen so to counter COVID-19 no specific vaccine, monoclonal antibodies have been manufactured till day. The outbreak of novel Coronavirus is treated with antimicrobial drugs but they have their own mild side effects. But the drastic spread of COVID-19 compels us also to use other ways to counter pandemic. Thus, passive immunization can be opted to hold back this mysterious virus. Passive immunization has been in use since early 20th century and showed its effectiveness against all previous infectious outbreaks including MERS and SARS-Cov-1 members of Coronaviridae. The review argues that convalescent plasma is an explicit option for containment of COVID-19 disease.

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Active trading in influence, namely promising, giving an undue advantage to someone, who asserts or confirms that he or she is able to exert an improper influence over third persons, is not explicitly regulated by the HCC. Exceptionally this conduct may be qualified as active bribery of domestic or foreign (international) public officials, but only if the active influence trader intends that the passive influence trader (on the basis of their arrangement) will transmit the undue advantage to the public official. Other cases of active trading in influence are not punishable under Hungarian Law, e.g. when the entire advantage is given to an influence trader, who asserts only his or her influence (without pretending the commission of active bribery). In this regard the Hungarian legislation is not in conformity with the requirements of the COE Convention, which oblige member states to active trading in influence irrespective of the allegation of bribery. Hungarian criminal law shall be harmonized with the requirements of the COE Convention by penalizing active trading in influence.

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