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Electrosynthesis is an old method currently moving again in the focus of organic synthesis. Some limitations of conventional electrosynthesis can be overcome by the use of electrochemical flow devices. This perspective indicates where the pitfalls, where the advantages and where the challenges are in implementing flow electrosynthesis as an alternative tool for the synthetic chemist.

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In 1836 Miklós Barabás (1810–1898) became the first painter to be elected member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In 1859, over two decades later, he gave his long-awaited inaugural lecture entitled On Perspective in Painting. The choice of subject-matter cannot be unequivocally deduced from his oeuvre, the majority of which was dominated by portrait painting. Perspective was an area of expertise that belonged more to landscape painters, such as Pierre-Henri Valenciennes, Joseph Mallord William Turner and Károly Markó the Elder (friend and colleague of Barabás), all of whom wrote or lectured on perspective. Nevertheless, Barabás maintained his interest in the science of perspective over the course of his (relatively long) life. As a young man he began collecting books on the subject, which he intended to make a crucial element of the curriculum of an art school he was planning to found. A few years after his lecture at the academy, he presented and published yet another lengthy essay on the indispensableness of the knowledge of perspective for painters. Furthermore, a series of drawings dating from 1832 throws light on his views concerning perspective and optics. Despite alluding to authorities such as Leonardo and Pozzo and discussing common mistakes made in compositions based on one-point perspective, in his two essays on the subject Barabás ventured the contention that there is no such thing as a perfect rule in perspective, and he analyzed contemporary theories suggesting the replacement of one-point perspective. In connection with this he mentioned the new findings of Sir Charles Wheatstone, who in 1838 published his essay on binocular vision. Barabás also followed the debate unfolding in the pages of the British Art Journal between 1849 and 1852 between proponents and opponents of a new system of perspective called curvilinear perspective. He compared the contentions of these authors, in particular that of William Gawin Herdmann, with the writings of the German artist and theorist Johann Erdmann Hummel. In practical terms, Barabás claimed that one-point perspective should be rejected only in cases in which the entire painting cannot be viewed in a single glance. In such cases, he contends, the picture must be divided into segments of 20–22 degree angle views. He classified such paintings under the “conventional category of the panorama”. Barabás recounted that he was once commissioned to paint a panorama that was to consist of eight individual pieces. The presumably large-scale work was never executed, but the perspective problems that arose continued to interest the painter. In order to eliminate the distortions that in his view were inevitable in the case of a 45 degree angle view, Barabás suggested that 22–23 degree angle views should be used instead, resulting therefore in a minimum of 16 paintings. It would have been preferable, he claimed, to have made a continuous drawing of the 360 degree spectacle. In light of this, the existence among the thousands of portraits of his oeuvre of a series of preliminary drawings for a panorama of Bucharest seems less surprising. Of the seven drawings of this series, one is a well-known water color entitled View of Bucharest with Two Figures. Until now, however, it was not known that this painting, which seemingly is composed according to a one-point perspective, is in fact part of a 360 degree circular view of the city. Like most preliminary drawings of panoramas in the 19th century, the drawings were most likely done with the aid of a camera obscura. Fainter lines, curved presumably as a result of the surface of the lens, were later ‘straightened’ with a darker line. Furthermore, each sheet of paper has border frames that were drawn afterwards and that therefore clipped off some of the details, details that were sketched again on the adjacent sheets. Also, the succession of wide angled, documentary-like ‘shots,’ the equal value of all lines, and the lack of any compositional work all attest to the use of a camera obscura. The function of this panorama is still unclear. It might have been a sort of substitute for travel: the capital of Romania remained a relatively little known city with an eastern feel due to its orthodox churches. Another possibility is that it had a military function, given that at the time Barabás was employed mainly by members of a Russian military detachment, among them general Pavel Kiszeliov. One of the two figures seen on the watercolor appears to be a high ranking soldier. The essays of Barabás examined numerous questions raised by 19th century theoreticians who attempted to replace the ‘knowledge based’ one-point perspective with a new, ‘sight-based’ system of perspective. Simultaneously, the artist became aware of the potentials that genres labeled by Martin Kemp as ‘artificial magic’ (such as the panorama and illusionistic frescoes) might have in comparison with two dimensional paintings. Barabás’ description of the works of Johann Michael Rottmayr and Johann Lucas Kracker, in which he claims “reality and art beautifully merge,” offers poetic testimony to his heightened interest in illusionistic frescoes. Ultimately Barabás's interest in perspective derives from its potential to create illusion, rather that its capacity as an instrument in the creation of a given composition.

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The niche construction perspective

Implications for evolution and human behaviour

Journal of Evolutionary Psychology
Authors: Kevin N. Laland, Jeremy R. Kendal and Gillian R. Brown

. Laland , K. N. and Brown , G. R. ( 2002 ): Sense and Nonsense. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behaviour . Oxford University Press. K. N. Laland

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Sanders, José — Wilbert Spooren 1997. Perspective, subjectivity, and modality from a cognitive linguistic point of view. In: Wolf-Andreas Liebert — Gisela Redeker — Linda Waugh (eds): Discourse and perspective in cognitive linguistics, 85–112. John

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. Cairo, Dār al-Manār. Reed, A. (2003): Anglo-American Perspectives on Private International Law . Lewiston, N.Y., The Edwin Mellen Press. Reed A

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personality, and developmental perspectives. 167–211. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ Batson, C. D., Early, S., Salvarini, G. (1997) Perspective taking: Imagining how another feels versus imagining how you would feel

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of the text into a foreground and a background; and interpersonal aspect or viewpoint contributes to inviting the audience to take a certain perspective on the events. 11 Tense may be defined as a three-dimensional category as well: ideational tense

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. In: Hanne Gram Simonsen — Rolf Theil Endresen (eds): A cognitive approach to the verb. Morphological and constructional perspectives, 11–48. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin & New York. Langacker R. W

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functional materials not only paves the way to achieve consistency in properties but it is also scalable and yet decentralized, giving it a flexibility of on-site-on-demand production [ 3 ]. This article aims to provide developing a broader perspective of the

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1395 1411 Davidson, R. — Jackson, D. — Kalin, N. (2000): Emotion, Plasticity, Context and Regulation: Perspectives from Affective Neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin , 126

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