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measuring optimism and pessimism: Test-retest reliability and relations with happiness and religious commitment . Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society , 27 ( 4 ), 365 – 366 . Diener , E

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.F., Robinson D.S., et al. (1994). Optimism versus pessimism predicts the quality of women’s adjustment to early stage breast cancer. Cancer, 73 , 1213—1220. Carver, C.S., Smith, R.G., Antoni, M.H., Petronis, V.M., Weiss, S

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The opinions of people are expected to forecast their actions, and even major economic institutions rely on this correlation. This research paper examines a case when the opinion of people about their financial situation contradicts their financial-related actions. In 2012 in Hungary the general opinion of people about their financial situation was showing the lowest confidence in the world, with a significant declining trend, reaching an extremely low level. Although the general expectation would be that this pessimism triggers a set-back in consumer spending, figures show that Hungarians were on the other end of the scale regarding their expenditures and were greatly increasing their spending. This raises the question: why do people say they are in such a tough financial situation yet instead of saving they increase their spending? This paper presents a cross-country analysis that reviews the severity of this discrepancy, as well as proves the validity of the question by excluding several alternative explanations, followed by a recommendation and hypotheses for a detailed research to explain the phenomenon.

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.G. (1987). Optimism, pessimism and postpartum depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11, 449—462. Carver, C.S., Pozo, C., Harris, S.D., Noriega, V., Scheier, M.F., Robinson, D.S., et al. (1993). How coping mediates the

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The contemporary economic system developed by China in the last two decades, supremely successful in achieving economic growth, defies traditional classification. It has been variously defined as socialist (by Chinese leaders), capitalist (Kornai), state socialist (Coase and Wang), political capitalism (Milanovic), a unique system with features of both socialism and capitalism not conforming to either system (Kolodko). This essay seeks to support, substantiate and develop Kolodko’s notion of the uniquess of China, while expressing greater pessimism than Kolodko about the economic, social and political sustainability of that system, its merits as a beneficial engine of globalisation and growth, and its exportability to other countries in the developed West.

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After a short survey of the poet's biography, the author points out a kind of cosmic pessimism as the philosophical root of Tyutchev's poetry. Tyutchev considered the gloomy and unfathomed Chaos to be the primordial principle of the Universe opposed by the harmony and splendour of Nature. In his view Chaos is also inherent in Man: it is the nocturnal part of our soul that hides our unconscious and shady strivings; accordingly, love is often marked in his poems as a ruining and murderous passion. Tyutchev's poetry appears as a grandiose arch spanning the main trends of Russian (and not only Russian) literature from the 18th century to our time. His works display certain congenial traits not only to symbolism, but also to expressionism and to the doctrine of existentialism. Many of his verses resound with the widespread atmosphere of our days marked by an anxious foreboding of the threatening Chaos.

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This study seeks to show the impact of stock recommendation reports on the efficiency of investments in the Polish stock market. The study is carried out in two stages: the first takes place at the micro-level and is based on a behavioural experiment, while the second focuses on the verification of our results obtained on a real market. The main assertion is that stock recommendations create heuristic effects among investors near the publication date of the recommendation. The ambiguity of the recommendations hinders investors’ reliable and unequivocal evaluation in investment decisions. There are studies in this field for different stock markets and periods of time, but our research added significant new knowledge about the functioning of the Polish stock exchange. Our study fits into the mainstream analysis of outlining the behaviour of investors in the capital market. The research findings underpin our pessimism about the impact of stock recommendations on investors’ behaviour.

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Abstract  

The first humanist Latin epic in Hungary was written by the Transylvanian humanist of Moravian origin, Stephanus Stierxel (or Taurinus, in his latinized name). The work appeared in 1519 in Vienna, under the title Stauromachia id est Cruciatorum Servile Bellum. The present study reviews the previous interpretations of the epic, which chose as its subject the 1514 peasants' revolt, led by Gyrgy Dsza. Some of the interpretations state that the author's sympathy is expressed towards the noblemen, who fell victim to the riots; some state the opposite: the author stands on the side of the peasants. According to the author of the present study, neither of these views is well founded. He supports his opinion with genre-analysis, showing that the work is an epic-parody, based on the Homeric Batracomyomachia, translated and made widely known by Reuchlin. On the other hand he shows that the author of the epic, following the Erasmian Riccardo Bartholini, condemns both the arrogance of the aristocracy and the cruelty of the peasants: both classes help to destroy the unity of Christian Europe, opening a way to the Islamic conquerors waiting at the borders. This is the reason why the author of the epic chose Lucan's epic on the Roman civil war as his moral guide in his historic pessimism, and adapted the motives of this work according to his own poetic goals. Imitation of Lucan in such format is unprecedented in the whole European Neo-Latin literature.

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Byrnes, D., Antoni, M., Goodkin, K., Efantis-Potter, J., Asthana, D., Simon, T., Munajj, J., Ironson, G., Fletcher, M. (1998): Stressful events, pessimism, natural killer cell cytotoxicity, and cytotoxic

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models . 136–162. Sage Publications, Newbury Park Burke , K. L., Joyner , A. B., Czech , D. R. (2000) An Investigation of Concurrent Validity between Two Optimism/Pessimism Questionnaires: The Life

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