Authors:Gabriella Kiss, Ferenc Molnár, Sándor Kovács, and Ladislav A. Palinkaš
The Darnó Unit in NE Hungary contains basalt and associated sediments related to the advanced rifting stage of Triassic age in the Neotethys. A detailed field study of five key outcrops and two deep wells revealed that only distal facies of basaltic lava flows of submarine volcanoes occur as blocks in the Jurassic mélange; the central and the most distal facies are missing. The advanced rifting-related Triassic and oceanic stage-related Jurassic basalt flows of the same mélange can be distinguished on the basis of lithostratigraphic, structural and textural features. The paper contains for the first time the detailed description of the key outcrops of peperitic facies consisting of a mixture of basalt and red micritic limestone. The occurrence of this facies is the principle key feature for discrimination in the field between Triassic and Jurassic basalt. In addition, four types of Triassic basalt were recognized: the Báj-patak-type, the Mély Valley-type, the Nagy-Rézoldal-type and the Reszél Hill-type. The observed peculiarities of advanced rift-related basalt are also compared to characteristics of volcanics encountered in wells drilled in the Darnó Unit. This comparison solves many problems of earlier interpretations of the studied wellbore sections.
Authors:L. Moens, P. Roos, J. De Rudder, J. Hoste, P. De Paepe, J. Van Hende, R. Marechal, and M. Waelkens
In 94 marble samples from 4 quarry districts in Italy (Carrara) and Turkey (Proconnesus, Dokimeion, Usak), minor and trace elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The maximum size of the calcite grains (MGS) of the rocks was measured in thin section. For 16 elements considered in this work, the concentration ranges show important inter-district overlaps; this also applies to the maximum grain size. However, the application of cluster analysis, using selected attributes, allows one to discriminate every pair of districts; 90 samples are classified correctly in all classification dendrograms.
Twenty Roman Age home-made sherds from Central Italian San Potito locality were studied by petrographic microscopic method. The ceramics were divided into five petrographic groups on the basis of their composition and structural-textural features. Two groups of the ceramics were tempered with clasts of alkaline volcanic origin, which seem to originate from Central-Italian volcanic territory components. The ceramics belonging to the other three groups contained large amounts of limestone and carbonatic fossils, the origin of the raw material was a marine clayish sediment, perhaps flysch.
Authors:Ildikó Gyollai, Ildikó Gyollai, Szaniszló Bérczi, Krisztián Fintor, Szabolcs Nagy, and Arnold Gucsik
The Mócs chondrite was studied by optical microscopy, element mapping, as well as scanning electron microscope backscattered electron (SEM—BSE) imaging, in order to gain a better understanding of the thermal metamorphic as well as post-shock annealing evolution and the mineralogical signatures in this meteorite. The studied thin section of Mócs meteorite contains 26 chondrules with a variety of chondrule textures, which are characterized by a blurry rim. The chondrules mostly consist of pyroxene and olivine, whereas feldspars occur only in the recrystallized groundmass, chondrule mesostasis, and mineral melt inside and beyond the shock veins. It was found that the matrix was completely recrystallized. According to the scanning electron microscope and optical microscope observations mentioned above, it can be concluded that the Mócs chondrite is a 6.5 petrographic type.
Authors:Katalin Sebők, Attila Kreiter, and Orsolya Viktorik
An uncommon vessel was found in one of the graves on a settlement of the Tisza culture at Pusztataskony-Ledence 1, near Kisköre-Gát. The present study traces the cultural and chronological connections of the find, and attempts, by a comparative analysis of distinct elements of the site’s burial rite, to determine the character of the cultural effects expressed through them. A petrographic analysis of ceramic samples collected from the material of grave 1-718 and the settlement, written by A. Kreiter and O. Viktorik, is completing the article.
Authors:Márton Bauer, Tivadar M. Tóth, Béla Raucsik, and István Garaguly
known from geophysical investigations, but the petrography of the Triassic reservoir is less known because of the few cores and the very restricted number of analyses. Nevertheless, the production history clearly shows that the available geologic and
Authors:I. Oláh, Zs. Bendő, Gy. Szakmány, V. Szilágyi, and B. Péterdi
The authors carried out the archaeometric analyses of 9 basalt preforms found at the Kádárta site in Veszprém county. Most of the analyses used non-destructive methods (macroscopic petrography, PGAA, MS and electron-microprobe (EDXEPMA) method developed within the frames of these investigations) and the traditional destructive petrographic and mineral chemical analyses were carried out on a small flake. All the analyses demonstrated that the nine basalt artefacts were prepared from the same raw material. According to the material collected so far from the basalt volcanoes of the Pannonian Basin, this raw material came from the volcanic territory of the Little Hungarian Plain and the Balaton Highlands. Within these territories the most probable provenance of the raw material is the lava rocks in the region of Boncsos-tető, although Hegyestű, Somló and Haláp cannot definitely be excluded.
Authors:V. A. Drebushchak, L. N. Mylnikova, T. N. Drebushchak, and V. V. Boldyrev
Ancient ceramic samples (single fragments and different parts of pots, unbroken and repaired; total about 180 samples) dated
from the transitional period of late Bronze to early Iron Age (VIII-VI centuries BC) and early Iron Age (VII-IV centuries
BC) were investigated by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, petrography, and scanning electron microscopy equipped
with the energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. In addition to that, to identify the clay sources for the ceramic manufacturing,
about 15 samples of clays and soils found near archeological digs and taken from the mineralogical museum were investigated.
We found out that the calcite content of ceramics is a very informative parameter for the identification of the clay source
for the pottery manufactured at low technological level (low-temperature firing).
Authors:Tamás Földes, Gizella B. Árgyelán, Péter Bogner, Imre Repa, Balázs Kiss, and Kinga Hips
This paper summarizes the benefits of non-destructive core measurements by medical Computer Tomograph (CT) in integrated 3D reservoir characterization. A direct relationship exists between CT measurements and petrography, conventional petrophysical analysis and well logs. Based on CT measurements the internal structure of core samples, and the geometry of framework constituents, porosity type and pore size distribution, as well as fracturing, can be described. There is a close connection between distribution of the Hounsfield Unit of CT measurements and pore size distribution detected by conventional petrophysical analysis. Calculation of effective porosity from petroleum saturation experiments provides a new way to determine the porosity of the whole core sample. Beside the description of reservoir parameters, the results of CT measurements can be extended over the surrounding area of the well. By matching the cylinder maps of CT to FMI images and other well logs the original position of the core samples can be reconstructed. Applying high-tech CT measurements in 3D reservoir characterization and modeling of fluid migration significantly reduces the exploration and production risks.