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Phagocytosis is an ancient cell function, which is similar at unicellular and multicellular levels. Unicells synthesize, store, and secrete multicellular (mammalian) hormones, which influence their phagocytosis. Amino acid hormones, such as histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, and melatonin stimulate phagocytosis, whereas peptide hormones, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin, opioids, arginine vasopressin, and atrial natriuretic peptide decreased it, independently on their chemical structure or function in multicellulars. Macrophage phagocytosis of multicellulars is also stimulated by amino acid hormones, such as histamine, epinephrine, melatonin, and thyroid hormones, however, the effect of peptide hormones is not uniform: prolactin, insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and leptin have positive effects, whereas ACTH, human chorionic gonadotropin, opioids, and ghrelin have negative ones. Steroid hormones, such as estrogen, hydrocortisone, and dexamethasone are stimulating macrophage phagocytosis, whereas progesterone, aldosterone, and testosterone are depressing it. Considering the data and observations there is not a specific phagocytosis hormone, or a hormonal regulation of phagocytosis neither unicellular, nor multicellular level, however, hormones having specific functions in multicellulars also influence phagocytosis at both levels universally (in unicellulars) or individually (in macrophages). Nevertheless, the hormonal influence cannot be neglected, as phagocytosis (as a function) is rather sensitive to minute dose of hormones and endocrine disruptors. The hormonal influence of phagocytosis by macrophages can be deduced to the events at unicellular level.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
S Popovic
,
S Popovic
,
S Popovic
,
N Arsenijevic
,
N Arsenijevic
,
N Arsenijevic
,
D Baskic
,
D Baskic
, and
D Baskic

Currently used assays for the quantification of apoptotic cells uptake by phagocytes have several methodological problems. Our assay overcomes some of these problems. As a source of apoptotic cells we used peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from the patients with chronic lymphoblast leukaemia. Apoptosis was induced by incubating cells with cycloheximide for up to 24 h. The assay was performed in suspension of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. For the visualisation of the phagocytes and phagocyted cells and discrimination of phagocyted from bound apoptotic cells we used Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide double staining. Here we offer a simple test which enables reliable measurement and it can show the difference of phagocytic potential between different individuals

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) are available in both tissues and the bloodstream [ 3 ]. Cellular innate immunity includes two main antibacterial mechanisms: phagocytosis and oxycytosis [ 4 ]. Phagocytosis occurs in the tissues whereas oxycytosis takes place in the bloodstream

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2008 9 781 795 Underhill DM, Ozinsky A: Phagocytosis of microbes: complexity in action. Annu Rev Immunol 20, 825

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Anna Rebeka Kovács
,
László Pál
,
Sándor Szűcs
,
Luca Lukács
,
Róbert Póka
, and
Rudolf Lampé

Lim JJ, Grinstein S, Roth Z. Diversity and versatility of phagocytosis: roles in innate immunity, tissue remodeling, and homeostasis. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017; 7: 191. 10

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Lectures on phagocytosis and immunity Br Med J 1 213 217 . 2. RA Nelson Jr

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., Underhill, D. M., Morrisette, N. S., Guo, J., McNiven, M. A., Aderem, A. (1999) Dynamin 2 is required for phagocytosis in macrophages. J. Exp. Med. 190 , 1849-1856. Dynamin 2 is required for phagocytosis in macrophages

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Jana Mojžišová
,
R. Hromada
,
I. Valocký
,
Š. Paulík
,
Vlasta Hipíková
,
Viera Bajová
,
Serena Pošiváková
, and
A. Bugarský

The effect of surgery on phagocytic activity of blood leukocytes and mitogen-induced blastogenesis of lymphocytes was studied in fourteen dogs. Simple ovariohysterectomy with anaesthesia induced by ketamine and xylazine or by ketamine, xylazine and halothane caused a short nonsignificant depression of phagocytic activity that persisted for four hours after surgery. Ingestion capacity of leukocytes decreased significantly immediately after surgery. Mitogen-induced blastogenesis of lymphocytes was depressed significantly in the first 48 hours and despite partial recovery this parameter did not reach the value of the control groups until the end of observation (7 days). A more conspicuous decrease of blastogenic response of blood lymphocytes to mitogens was found after the use of ketamine and xylazine in a dose maintaining anaesthesia. Anaesthesia with ketamine and xylazine in the lower dose and maintained with halothane resulted in a later improvement of the blastogenic response of lymphocytes.

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Megújuló szemlélet és immunmodulációs törekvések a felnőttkori idiopathiás immunthrombocytopenia terápiájában

Recent changes in paradigms in the management of adulthood chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Miklós Udvardy
,
Lajos Gergely
, and
Árpád Illés

Több mint 20 éve következett be a második szemléletváltás a krónikus felnőttkori idiopathiás thrombocytopeniás purpura (immunthrombocytopenia) kezelésében, amikor felismerték az amúgy megakaryocytás, de a fokozott thrombocytapusztulást mégsem eléggé ellensúlyozó csontvelői thrombocytaképzés serkentésének fontosságát. A thrombopoetinanalógok beléptek a klinikai alkalmazásba, gyorsan átírták az algoritmust, a splenectomia mára a harmadik vonalba került. Ezen paradigmaváltást az egyik szerző 20 éve ebben a folyóiratban is ismertette. Időközben sok tapasztalat gyűlt össze a thrombopoetinanalógok alkalmazásával, nagy előnyeivel, de azzal is, hogy még ezek sem oldanak meg minden terápiás gondot. Ez az útkeresés visszakanyarodott az eredeti antitestindukált immunthrombocytopenia irányba, azaz az immunmoduláns közelítésmódra. Ebben 3 fő irányzat látszik olyan mértékben ígéretesnek, hogy a közeljövőben be fognak épülni a klinikai gyakorlatban a szteroid/TPO-analóg refrakter vagy más, nehezebb idiopathiás thrombocytopeniás purpura esetek ellátási rendjébe. Ezen irányok: (1) szelektív IgG-anyagcsere (clearance)-gyorsítók, (2) komplementmódosítás a thrombocytafelszíni immunglobulin-kötődés csökkentésére, (3) ezen immunfolyamat jelátviteli útjának megváltoztatása tirozin-kináz- (elsősorban lép-tirozin-kináz- és Bruton-tirozin-kináz-) gátlással. Ezen elemek egymagukban, együtt, illetve a jelen modalitásokhoz kapcsolódóan átrajzolhatják az idiopathiás thrombocytopeniás purpura kezelési algoritmusait a közeljövőben, amire ez a közlemény kívánja felhívni a figyelmet. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(38): 1514–1519.

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46 221 232 Baginski, B.: Effect of lead and cadmium on the viability and phagocytosis of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (Articles in German

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