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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Javier Tarrío-Saavedra, Carlos Gracia-Fernández, Jorge López-Beceiro, Salvador Naya, and Ramón Artiaga

phase angle, which arises from the modulation shift between the modulated and detected temperature. It is the phase shift between the input and response [ 15 ]: the stimulus is the modulated heating rate and the response is the modulated heat flow. This

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Abstract  

An analysis developed in previous work has been further refined in order to study the effect of heat transfer on the heat capacity and phase angle measurements by TMDSC. In the present model, a temperature gradient within the sample has been taken into account by allowing for heat transfer by thermal conduction within the sample. The influence of the properties of the sensors, the heat transfer conditions between the sensor and sample,and the properties of the sample have been investigated by varying each parameter in turn. The results show that heat capacity measurements are reliable only within a restricted frequency range, for which the experimental conditions are such that the heat transfer phase angle depends linearly on the modulation frequency.

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Modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry

Considerations for a quantitative study of thermosetting systems

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. Van Assche, A. Van Hemelrijck, and B. Van Mele

Abstract  

The influence of temperature modulation and signal treatment (deconvolution procedure) of modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry is discussed with respect to the investigation of cure kinetics of thermosetting systems. The use of a ‘dynamic’ heat capacity calibration is not important for this purpose due to normalization of the heat capacity signal in all cure experiments. The heat flow phase during isothermal and non-isothermal cure is always small, giving rise to negligible corrections on the heat capacity and reversing heat flow signals in-phase with the modulated heating rate. The evolution of the heat flow phase contains information on relaxation phenomena in the course of the chemical reactions.

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Abstract  

The quality of measurement of heat capacity by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is based on strict symmetry of the twin calorimeter. This symmetry is of particular importance for temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC) since positive and negative deviations from symmetry cannot be distinguished in the most popular analysis methods. The heat capacities for sapphire-filled and empty aluminum calorimeters (pans) under designed cell imbalance caused by different pan-masses were measured. In addition, the positive and negative signs of asymmetry have been explored by analyzing the phase-shift between temperature and heat flow for sapphire and empty runs. The phase shifts change by more than 180° depending on the sign of the asymmetry. Once the sign of asymmetry is determined, the asymmetry correction for temperature-modulated DSC can be made.

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Abstract  

The glass transition temperature of thermosets is determined by alternating differential scanning calorimetry (ADSC), which is a temperature modulated DSC technique. The different values of the glass transition obtained from heat flow measurements (total and reversible) and heat capacity (modulus of the complex heat capacity) are analysed and compared with the values obtained by conventional DSC. The effect of the sample mass on the values of T g, heat capacity and phase angle has been analysed. The effect of the thermal contact between sample and pan has been studied using samples cured directly inside the pan and disc-shaped samples of different thickness. The results obtained for the thermal properties and the phase angle are compared and analysed. The modulus of the complex heat capacity enables the determination of the dynamic glass transition, T g, which is frequency dependent. The apparent activation energy ofthe relaxation process associated with the glass transition has been evaluated from the dependence of T g on the period of the modulation.

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Abstract  

The response of temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) to irreversible crystallization of linear polymers was investigated by model calculations and compared to a number of measurements. Four different exotherms were added to a typical modulated, reversible heat-flow rate in order to simulate irreversible crystallization. It was found that the reversing heat-flow rate of the TMDSC in response to such irreversible crystallization exotherms is strongly affected by tbe shape of the transition and the phase-angle where the exotherm occurs. A comparison with the experimental data gave valuable insight into the transitions, as well as the nature of the TMDSC response which is usually limited to an analysis of the first harmonic term of the Fourier series that describes the heat-flow rate.

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The modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) technique superimposes upon the conventional DSC heating rate a sinusoidally varying modulation. The result of this modulation of the heating rate is a periodically varying heat flow, which can be analysed in various ways. In particular, MDSC yields two components (‘reversing’ and ‘non reversing’) of the heat flow, and a phase angle. These each show a characteristic behaviour in the glass transition region, but their interpretation has hitherto been unclear. The present work clarifies this situation by a theoretical analysis of the technique of MDSC, which introduces a kinetic response of the glass in the transition region. This analysis is able to describe all the usual features observed by MDSC in the glass transition region. In addition, the model is also able to predict the effects of the modulation variables, and some of these are discussed briefly.

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Permanent deformation in the form of rutting is the most frequently occurring defect of asphalt pavements. This paper gives a short overview of bitumen performance parameters used for characterization of resistance against permanent deformation in the USA and Europe. Investigation of relationships between rheological parameters measured with dynamic shear rheometer using different test modes is presented. The test program consisted of measuring of performance parameters of paving grade, hard, polymer modified and rubber bitumen binders. They were tested in the linear viscoelastic range and beyond. Correlations between complex shear modulus, combined with phase angle, complex viscosity, stress sensitivity, and zero-shear viscosity are given. However, the correspondence of binder parameters with relevant performance parameters of asphalt mixes have to be further investigated.

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Abstract  

Melting behaviours of poly(oxytetramethylene)glycols (POTMGs) with different molar masses were investigated by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and relaxation times within the melting range were estimated from the modulation-frequency dependence of phase angle δ. An Arrhenius plot of the relaxation times exhibited a plateau in the lower melting peak region of POTMGs with molar masses of 1400, 1000 and 650. This plot was compared with the standard DSC curve. The apparent activation energy was estimated from the relaxation time in the upper and lower sides of a melting temperature region: slight dependence on the molar mass was observed for the former region whereas the maximum value was obtained for a molar mass 1400 for the latter region.

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