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Until recently, the issue of the thermal gradients within TMDSC samples remained mostly a subject of theory and mathematical models — only the phase lag was subject to experimental verification, as this information is readily available from the analysis software of most instruments. There was no method to verify the transient behaviour and temperature gradients within a sample without making costly and intensive modifications to the equipment. Recently, however, a group of researchers were able to experimentally measure thermal profiles as a function of sample thickness with a high-speed, high-resolution infrared camera mounted on the TMDSC cell. Therefore, this paper is dedicated to comparing the predictions of our three-dimensional model with this newly available data.

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Authors: Brigitta Tóth, Roland Boha, Eszter Kormann, Zsófia Anna Gaál, Anikó Kónya, and Márk Molnár


A vizsgálat célja az emlékezeti agyi funkcionális kapcsolathálózat életkortól függő emlékezeti teljesítményhez és terheléshez köthető elemzése volt. A kísérlet során idős és fiatal kísérleti személyek számítógép képernyőn bemutatott három vagy öt négyzet helyét és színét memorizálták. Az emlékezeti teljesítményt felismerési helyzetben teszteltük. Az EEG adatokat az emlékezeti fenntartás periódusában agyi területek közötti gamma fázisszinkronizáció (phase lag index) elemzése mellett a gráf-elméleten alapuló komplex hálózat elemzéssel is vizsgáltuk. Az idős kísérleti személyek teljesítménye a fiatal felnőttekhez képest csökkent mind a három, illetve öt elem felismerése során. Nehéz feltétel esetében az időskori teljesítménycsökkenés nagyobb mértékű volt. A parietális és temporális területeken a gamma oszcilláció szinkronizációja a vizuális információ rövid távú emlékezetben történő fenntartásának folyamatával van összefüggésben. Az idős személyek a fiatal kísérleti csoporthoz képest csökkent parietális szinkronizációval és az emlékezeti terhelés hatására specifikus temporális szinkronizáció-növekedés hiányával jellemezhetők. A komplex funkcionális hálózati elemzés alapján igazolható, hogy az emlékezeti terhelés hatására növekedik a lokálisan szegregált információfeldolgozás mértéke. A megtanulandó elemek számának növelésével ugyanakkor a hálózat optimálisabbá szerveződése is kimutatható. Az idős életkorra jellemző emlékezeti deficit hátterében feltételezhetően az információ frissítéséhez köthető területspecifikus gamma szinkronizációs válasz csökkenése áll. Eredményeink alapján a gamma oszcilláció területspecifikus szinkronizációjának kiemelkedő funkcionális jelentősége van az információ-specifikus reprezentáció fenntartásában.

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Eight cultivars of dry-land wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) historically planted in Shaanxi Province, China, were grown in plots with irrigation and drought treatments during the growing seasons of 2011–2014, so as to characterize the differences in the rate and duration of the grain-filling stage among cultivars. The experimental results showed no obvious change among cultivars with respect to the duration of the grain-filling stage and no significant correlation between duration and grain weight. The filling rates of all three phases (lag, linear, and mature periods) showed significant differences among cultivars and had a greater effect on the grain weight than the duration of the filling stage, even though drought decreased the filling rate in the linear and mature periods. A lower filling rate led to a lighter grain weight in inferior grains than in superior grains. For the superior and inferior grains in the central spikelets, modern cultivars possess faster filling rates, especially in the lag and linear periods, whereas for the whole spike, no significant trend with cultivar replacement was observed. Faster filling rates with stable filling durations will be beneficial in obtaining additional yield increases.

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By the fall of Communism, also the past of Central and Eastern Europe is mostly hold eradicated, albeit it cannot but steadily survive in sublated mentality. On the field of l aw, this is expressed by the continuity of text-centrism in approach to law, with the law’s application following the law’s letters in a quasi-mechanical way. Consequently, what used to be legal nihilism in the Socialist regime has turned into the law’s textual fetishism in the meantime. This is equal to saying that facing the dilemma of weighing between apparently contradictory ideals within the same Rule of Law, justice has in fact been sacrificed to the certainty in/of the law in the practical working of the judiciary. Especially, constitutional adjudication mostly works for the extension of individual rights while the state as the individuals’ community is usually blocked in responding challenges in an operative manner. Situation in Poland, the Czech and Slovak Republics, Baltic Republics, as well as Croatia is surveyed through a series of case studies in order to show degrees and variations of worsening. Softening the law by activating juridical inventiveness was used to be pressed on the region during her preparation to accession, a practice that has now been counteracted by stiffening hard law anew. In either case, on the last resort, phase-lag of juridical mentality in the region may have been at stake, preserved at the stage what Western Europe could develop into when reconstruction after the end of WWII started. For post-war West’s new joiners in approach and methodology — like (1) natural law considerations; (2) balancing among interests through assessing them in light of general principles and clauses, either of the law or implied by its underlying legal culture; as well as (3) constitutionalisation of issues — have remained mostly esoteric ideas, alien in mass to the region in question. The damage this condition may cause by cumulation is an added burden on the popular receptivity of catch-words heralded, among other ideals, by the Rule of Law.

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different phases: latency (lag), logarithmic or exponential (log), stationary, and cell death. Fig. 2 Growth phases of bacteria: latent phase (lag), exponential or logarithmic phase (log), stationary phase, and dead

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differential transformer (LVDT) positional sensor. The strain can be calculated from the displacement. The magnitude of the applied stress and the resultant strain are used to calculate the stiffness of the material under stress ( Fig. 5 ). The phase lag

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experimentally as well as theoretically [ 21 – 25 ] that the phase lag between block and bottom of the sample and between top and bottom surfaces of the sample increase with sample thickness and therefore results in large error. Fig. 5

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, with r h = Δ V p /Δ A p as the pore hydraulic radius. The lag time τ t is the phase-lag in the temperature gradient. Once the parameters in Eq. 2 are known under given initial and boundary conditions, the heat transfer process in fibrous

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