The two-point scaling approach is introduced by the assumption that the thermodynamic potentials are generalized homogeneous
functions with respect to the reduced temperature variable and to the fields conjugated to the order parameters, however,
the singularities are related to the stability points in contrast to the conventional scaling where the fixed point is identified
with the phase transition temperature.
The extended scaling theory is illustrated in the case of the pyroelectric function behaviour in the neighbourhood of ferro-paraelectric
phase transitions. The method is successfully applied to the description of the melting and surface melting phenomena. Applications
to liquid crystals and mixtures of solvents can be predicted as fruitful but they still remain open for considerations.
Authors:V. Braga, F. Garcia, J. Dias, and Sílvia Dias
Nb2O5 supported on SiO2-Al2O3 were prepared with a wide loading range (2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mass%) and analyzed by simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG)
and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The materials presented a phase transition close to 1364°C. This phase transition
was studied by XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Amixture of orthorhombic (T) andmonoclinic (H andM) crystalline phases was
evidenced in the supported samples, which is coverage dependent, in contrast to the formation of only the monoclinic phase
(H and M) when pure Nb2O5 is heated under the same conditions. These results indicate the stabilization of Nb2O5 on silica-alumina surface.
Authors:V. A. Drebushchak, S. N. Dementiev, and Yu. V. Seryotkin
stellerite, with two close peaks one by one. The first one (∼200 °C) is narrow and high and the second one (∼250 °C) is broader and smaller. The first peak was reported to be the first-order phasetransition with the step change of 3.24% in the UC volume and
Authors:M. Daviti, K. Chrissafis, K. Paraskevopoulos, E. Polychroniadis, and T. Spassov
The kinetics of the α-β phase transition of HgI2 were investigated by isothermal and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry. The effective activation energy of
the transition, 41540 kJ mol-1, was determined applying the methods of Kissinger and Ozawa. The transition kinetics were described by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami
model and the value of the Avrami exponent n was found to range from high values (n>3) at the early stages to lower values at later stages of the transformation, with an average value of 2.
There are several approaches for the description of phase transitions (PT). leading to different classification schemes:ApproachClassification scheme bythermodynamicorder (after Ehrenfest)kineticreversibility, quenchability, hysteresisstructuralrelationship of crystallographic axes before and after PTmechanisticactual migration path of atoms during PT The most important techniques for investigating PT include DTA and DSC thermo-optical analysis, melastic neutron scattering, IR and Raman spectroscopy and elastic X-ray and neutron diffraction. The latter, as dependent on the temperature, can give indications on the mechanism of PT. The appropriate application of these techniques is demonstrated on the example of the polymorphism of KPO3.
Authors:P. Byszewski, E. Kowalska, R. Diduszko, R. Aleksiyko, M. Berkowski, J. Fink-Finowicki, and J. Kapuśniak
The solid solution crystals, La1–xNdxGaO3 and La1–xPrxGaO3 have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry method; the crystals exhibit the first order phase transition, the
temperature of the transition linearly increases with the concentration of Pr or Nd. The structure of the crystals has been
determined by X-ray diffraction. The correlation between the phase transition temperature and crystalline structure at the
temperature of the phase transition in both solid solution families is discussed.
A scanning transitiometer has been used in investigations of 1st and 2nd order phase transformations in polymers. It was demonstrated taking as an example fusion of polyethylene at 200 MPa with a temperature scan as inducing variable that by recording simultaneously the rate of heat exchange and the rate of volume variations it is possible to determine in a single experiment the pressure derivative of temperature of this 1st order phase transition. For phase transformations similar to the 2nd order transitions the transitiometric analysis permits simultaneous measurements of pairs of thermodynamic derivatives which permit determination of pressure effects according to the Ehrenfest equations. For the glass transition in polystyrene at high pressures the pressure effect was similar independently of the pair of thermodynamic derivatives used (heat capacity and thermal expansivity or compressibility and thermal expansibility).
Authors:Hideki Saitoh, Satoaki Ikeuchi, and Kazuya Saito
Summary Crystal structures of the room-temperature (RT) and low-temperature (LT) phases of p-methylbenzyl alcohol were reexamined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction method while paying special attention to detect structural disorder in the RT phase involved in successive structural phase transitions at 179 and 210 K. In the RT phase at 250 K, positional disorder of oxygen atoms was detected in contrast to the previous structure report. The structure of the LT phase coincided to the previous one. Heat capacities were measured by adiabatic calorimetry below 350 K, which covers the structural phase transitions and fusion at 331.87 K. The structural phase transitions were of first-order and required long time for completion. The combined magnitude of entropies of transition was ca. 5 J K-1 mol-1, a part of which can be ascribed to the positional disorder observed in the structure analysis. Standard thermodynamic functions are tabulated below 350 K.
Effect of the synthesis conditions of Pechini technique on crystallinity and purity of Na3Ce(PO4)2 compound was investigated. Nano-sized cerium-sodium phosphate obtained when EDTA was used as an additional chelating agent
for Ln3+. The total enthalpy change of Na3Ce(PO4)2 phase transition was determined as 14.2±0.7 kJ mol−1 for sample synthesized by conventional solid-solid reaction. The phase transition process was confirmed to occur at 1060°C
or in temperature range 920–1060°C depending on thermal treatment of powders.
Authors:H. Kawaji, Y. Ishihara, A. Nidaira, T. Tojo, T. Atake, and Y. Kuroiwa
A new phase transition (III–IV) was found at 311 K in CsCoPO4 by DSC measurements. The crystal structure of all the phases, I–IV, in CsCoPO4 was studied by synchrotron-radiation X-ray powder diffraction. The diffractometry revealed that CsCoPO4 had the same crystal structure as that of corresponding phases in CsZnPO4. An extremely large particle size effect was found on III–IV phase transition in CsCoPO4; the phase transition enthalpy decreases with decreasing the particle size around 0.1 mm. Such large particle size effects
had been also observed in CsZnPO4. However, no III–IV phase transition was observed in the particle smaller than 0.1 mm of CsZnPO4, while such a critical size was not found in CsCoPO4.