This paper examines the term ā-rè recorded in mediaeval Chinese historical sources as the title of the ruler of the Yenisei Kirghiz state. The author aims to discover which Old Turkic title this Chinese phonetic transcription corresponds to. By reconstructing the sounds in ā-rè according to Middle Chinese the author argues that the most likely pronunciation of the term was änäl, which he suggests is a phonetic variant of the Old Turkic title inäl. The author also argues that this was a temporary title of the ruler of the Yenisei Kirghiz during their vassalage under the Uyghurs.
Queneau's language has been analysed many times, mostly from a linguistic point of view, with special attention being paid to such procedures as phonetic transcription, lexical and syntactic mistakes or vocabulary typical of colloquial speech. However, Queneau's aim is not simply to imitate spoken discourse. Underlining of the oral aspect of a literary text emphasises its ludic character, i.e., its being -- in a sense -- the author's intellectual game with the reader. Queneau's linguistic experiments are not just limited to the most frequently mentioned techniques, by means of which he introduces the spoken discourse into literature. Simultaneously, Queneau employs very sophisticated, precise or even technical vocabulary as well as varied stylistic figures, often very complex. The present article analyses this play of linguistic registers, which constitutes the originality of Queneau's style and demonstrates that it is the conscious strategy of the author, who, rejecting established linguistic norms and literary conventions, plays with the reader.
Chinese sources document foreign names with phonetic transcriptions and render them in Chinese characters with close, or at least approximate, sound value. Among the Sogdians who were active at the Chinese court of the 6th century there were two persons named He Zhuruo and An Weiruo respectively. The etymology of both names can now be tentatively identified with Maniach, the name which was recorded in a Byzantine source, being that of a Sogdian envoy to Constantinople. Hence the original written form of Zhuruo and Weiruo can be restored with the spelling Moruo. The reason for these misspellings goes back to the graphic similarity of the concerned characters. Some further emendations of similar kinds are also proposed.
The present study investigates the various editions of the earliest Sino-Mongol glossary known as the Chih-yüan i-yü or Meng-ku i-yü which is contained in the early-Yüan encyclopedia Shih-lin kuang-chiby Ch'en Yüan-ching. There are numerous editions of this popular encyclopedia dating from the Yüan and Ming periods, as well as an important Japanese edition of 1699 reproducing the Chinese edition of 1325/26 which is no longer extant. There are considerable variations in the Chinese phonetic transcriptions of the Mongol words in the glossary, mostly due, however, to scribal errors. The Chih-yüan i-yü/Meng-ku i-yüwas the subject of two detailed linguistic investigations by L. Ligeti and G. Kara in 1990 (AOH44, 3). The present study is meant to complement and supplement their investigations by providing further information on the textual history of the glossary. At the same time the author offers possible explanations for a dozen or so terms that could not be satisfactorily interpreted by previous researchers.
data have to be entered into the system. The first level of coding is phonetictranscription which is detailed enough so no features of the originally pronounced forms are lost. This technology appears in the papers that discuss some characteristic
Authors:Katalin Balogné Bérces and Patrick Honeybone
constituent, either: it is difficult (if not impossible) to delineate the sound segments, which the symbols of phonetictranscriptions idealise into discrete objects, in their representations. The hyperhierarchical or vertical models include GP2