In the accounts of early twentieth-century modernism the ethnographic object and its ‘discovery’ by avant-garde artists has come to occupy a central role. But the African studies by the German author and critic Carl Einstein (1885–1940) and the Latvian artist Vladimir Markov (1877–1914) have regularly been demoted to the footnotes of primitivist appropriations. In the histories of non-Western cultures and the anthropology of art both have endured a place in obscurity. Described as ‘the first and most influential’ of the ‘champions of primitive art’, Einstein's Negerplastik has regained some recognition, whereas Markov's Iskusstvo Negrov remains the lesser known of the two books. Emerging at the same historical juncture both authors postulated the limits of Western artistic traditions by advocating the aesthetic autonomy of non-Western sculpture. By introducing a comparative reading, this paper argues that the image/text strategies of both studies orchestrated a poetics of alterity that was central to their respective theoretical agendas and indicative of the politically charged cultural exchanges within the early-twentieth-century avant-garde. In addition to their seemingly analogous motivations it is proposed that their ‘ethnographic turn’ was based, nevertheless, upon conflicting approaches that betray their individual philosophical and artistic affiliations.
The Voyages pittoresques et romantiques, published between 1820 and 1878, contain nearly 3,000 lithographic plates which present a variety of material relicts, mainly those of medieval art and architecture. Thus, they are a fundamental and exceptionally rich source for the history of both the visual representation and interpretation of the Middle Ages in Nineteenth-Century France. They allow exploring three central aspects of a genuine national historisation of the medieval patrimoine: The Voyages can exemplify how the archaic and medieval past has been deliberately revaluated as the origin of the modern nation in post-revolutionary France. They demonstrate the extent to which the material relicts of the past have been explored in the frame of a national historical narrative which itself was designed as a comprehensive histoire de la civilisation. Finally, and particularly, the Voyages provide us with an understanding of the media which served to perform and which at the same time represented this very conceptualisation of the historical material. Guided by important aesthetic principles of Romanticism like the Picturesque or the subjectivity of visual perception, images rose to the leading medium through which history was interpreted and imaginations of the Middle Ages were communicated.
different temperature levels was recorded by digital photography and quantified by image analysis. At the same time the thermal power of the mould sample was measured with isothermal calorimetry.
The purpose of this study is to compare these two
Authors:J. Bogáncs, L. Maróthy, L. Bakos, R. Baranyai, A. Elek, H. Rausch, and E. Szabó
Neutron activation analysis, gamma-ray spectrometry, particle sizing and photography of the corrosion products were used to qualify the constructional materials and primary coolants. The investigations related to: characterization of the construction materials of the primary circuit, circulated washing, hot conditioning, physical and energetic start up. The aim of the measurements was to study the cleanness of the primary circuit from assembling up to energetic start up and to follow closely the variation in the amount and the removing of the mechanical contaminants and corrosion products depending on the technological parameters.
Hungarian-Canadian artists and musicians have shown distinguished accomplishments in the various disciplines. In the arts they have been honoured amongst the nation's very best in painting, sculpting, engraving, printmaking, etching, as well as in industrial graphics, photography, drawing and, above all, coin design. My bibliography, Canadian Studies on Hungarians (2nd vol., 1995) includes 87 citations and biographical summaries pertaining to 23 artists practicing in Canada on a professional basis. The reference book entitled Professional Hungarian Artists Outside Hungary, by Ernõ Gyimesy Kásás and László Könnyű (1977), introduces information on 48 Hungarian-Canadian artists. My own selection was based on the availability of literature on each individual artist published in the English and French languages, including the monumental Arts in Canada: A Union List of Artists' Files / Artists au Canada… (1988), the two-volume Art and Architecture in Canada (1991), and the seven-volume A Dictionary of Canadian Artists.
The text deals with the work of Jana Želibská (1941 Olomouc) — flanêuse in the 1960s and the priestess of the Great Mother (Nature) in the 1970s. Želibská took a central position among male protagonists of neo-avant-garde in Slovakia. Her approach has been labeled ‘latent feminism’ because no real feminist platform existed during socialism in Slovakia. Želibská used the language of pop art and New Realism and their iconography mixed with the local folklore motifs in a quite different way. Pop art and New Realism entered the oeuvre of many artists simultaneously with experiments in conceptual art (Stano Filko, Peter Bartoš, Július Koller, Jana Želibská). After 1968, Želibská shifted the focus of her activities to land as an open structure outside of official supervision. Želibská made several statements regarding experiencing the magic of the present moment and experience with landscape through concepts and events that emphasized connection with nature. Photography helped her to work with continuity and causality in photo-sequences of situations and events. The path through ‘rooms of her own’ and other spatial concepts from the female labyrinth to the architecture of the temple in the 1960s, through changing open structures outdoors in her concept and land art in the 1970s, photography in 1980s, reached installation and video in the 1990s. Installations in the 1980s were built mainly on the artist’s experience with and in nature, or on the typical postmodernist contrast of the urban and natural. Puberty and virginity, which interested her in the land art events in 1970s, appeared again in her video art in a monumental demonstration of ‘girl power.’ In 1997 Želibská took the position behind the camera, shooting a naked male body without identity and face in the video installation Her View of Him. Thus she completed her shift from the ‘girl power’ of the 1960s and early 1970s agenda to fully articulated ‘woman power’.
In this paper we want to present some results of an intensive survey programme on the Bronze Age settlements of Emőd-Nagyhalom and Tard-Tatárdomb in Northern Hungary. The inner cores of these multi-layer sites are just one part of a more complex whole. They are surrounded by an outer settlement that is separated by a deep and wide ditch from the inner tell part. The outer settlement itself can be divided in two parts: There is an intensively used inner part probably with houses and an outer part featuring pits that could be indicative of an everyday activity zone of some kind such as storage or production. The precise chronological and functional relation of these settlement parts will be the subject of future work. Our current research is based mainly on intensive archaeological survey, aerial photography, topographical measurements and magnetometer survey that provide important data both on the intra and off-site level. This paper focuses on the results of the geophysical survey methods.
Authors:K. Debackere, M. Luwel, and Reinhilde Veugelers
The study tries to analyze regional technological capabilities, linking technological positions to economic strength of the
region. To measure this link, we correlate the EPO patent data with trade data to assess the degree to which technological
advantages are translated into comparative advantages for the Flemish region in Belgium. The analysis for Flanders provides
some interesting insights. Following the skewed distribution of firms, the technological areas in which Flanders is able to
build, a strong position are very specific: printing technology, weaving technology, photography and recently also telecommunications.
Weak positions are outspoken in car technology. Linking these strengths and weaknesses in technological areas to economic
activity revealed an important mismatch between both. Most of the Flemish patents are in sectors without any comparative advantage,
while most of the sectors where Flanders does hold a comparative advantage, like chemicals and pharmaceuticals, do not show
strong technological advantages in terms of patents. Given the mismatch that was detected between technological positions
and economic advantages, it is of crucial importance to better understand the (missing) links between the various actors in
the regional innovation system. The analysis points out two important issues. The large and growing number of foreign applications
to Belgian/Flemish inventors and the large number of subsidiaries of foreign firms among Belgian/Flemish applications illustrate
the pervasiveness of the foreign dimension in the Belgian/Flemish technological landscape. Also very specific to the Belgian/Flemish
situation, is the limited importance of universities or research centers in terms of patenting activities.