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Waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is grown throughout the world for its specific quality. Fertilization and planting density are two crucial factors that affect waxy wheat yield and photosynthetic capacity. The objectives of the research were to determine the effects of fertilization and planting density on photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and yield components of waxy wheat, including Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, PH, HI, Pn, Gs, Ci, E and WUE using the method of field experiment, in which there were three levels (150, 300, and 450 kg ha−1) of fertilizer application rate and three levels (1.35, 1.8, and 2.25 × 106 plants ha−1) of planting density. The results suggested that photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and yield components had close relationship with fertilization levels and planting density. Under the same plant density, with the increase of fertilization, Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, HI, Pn, Gs, E and WUE increased and then decreased, PH increased, but Ci decreased. Under the same fertilization, with the increase of plant density, Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, HI increased and then decreased, PH, Pn, Gs and E increased, PH and WUE declined. The results also showed that F2 (300 kg ha−1) and D2 (1.8 × 106 plants ha−1) was a better match in this experiment, which could obtain a higher grain yield 4961.61 kg ha−1. Consequently, this combination of fertilizer application rate and plant densities are useful to get high yield of waxy wheat.

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.Q. , Yuan , S. , Yuan , M. & Zhang , H.Y. ( 2015 ): Influence of stripe rust infection on the photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant system of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars at the adult plant stage . Front. Plant Sci. , 6 , 779

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The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil drench with three different concentrations of CdCl2 on pigments content, photosynthetic activity, carbohydrate contents and productivity of Sorghum bicolor L. cv. 'Dorado' plants throughout various stages of plant growth and development. Also particular interest was focussed on the effect of grain presoaking with kinetin to ameliorate the toxicity effects exerted by the different levels of CdCl2. In the majority of cases, grain pretreatment with kinetin increased photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic activity, Hill reaction as well as carbohydrate contents in leaves of cadmium treated sorghum plants. In general, the observed decrease in yield and yield attributes of sorghum plants in response to Cd2+ treatments was accelerated particularly when grains were presoaked in kinetin. The ameliorating effect of kinetin was more pronounced at 1 mM CdCl2. Grain priming with kinetin increased grain biomass (i.e. fresh and dry weights), carbohydrates, protein and ion contents in yielded grains of cadmium treated sorghum plants. Cadmium treatments altered the balance of growth bioregulators in developed grains of sorghum plants. Thus, CdCl2 at all the used concentrations exerted a significant decrease in growth promotor levels with an increase in growth inhibitory substances equivalent to abscisic acid. On the other hand, grain priming with kinetin increased the growth promotory substances and reduced abscisic acid levels.

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848 Hu, L., Li, Y., Xu, W.G., Zhang, Q.C., Zhang, L., Qi, X.L., Dong, H.B. 2012. Improvement of the photosynthetic characteristics of transgenic wheat plants by transformation with the maize

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2002 46 115 116 Nelson, C. J. (1988) Genetic associations between photosynthetic characteristics and yield: review of

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Adamec L.(1997): Photosynthetic characteristics of the aquatic carnivorous plant Aldrovanda vesiculosa Aquatic Botany 59: 297–306 Borhidi A. (2003): Magyarország növénytársulásai

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Jiang D., Dai T., Jing Q., Cao W., Zhou Q., Zhao H., Fan X. (2004): Effects of long-term fertilization on leaf photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield in winter wheat. Photosynthetica , 42 , 439–446. Fan

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Subrahmanyam, D., Subash, N., Haris, A., Sikka, A.K. 2006. Influence of water stress on leaf photosynthetic characteristics in wheat cultivars differing in their susceptibility to drought. Photosynthetica 44 :125

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Strain, E., Beardall, J., Thomson, R., Roberts, S., Light, B. (2006) Spatio-temporal variability in the photosynthetic characteristics of Zostera tasmanica measured by PAM. Aquat. Bot. 85 , 21–28. Light B

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): Influence of water stress on leaf photosynthetic characteristics in wheat cultivars differing in their susceptibility to drought. Photosynthetica , 44 , 125–129. Sikka A. Influence of

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