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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Mehrdad Mohammadi, Jila Yavarian, Vajihe Karbasizade, Sharareh Moghim, Bahram Nasr Esfahani, and Nafiseh Sadat Hosseini

]. The main goals of this report were to find the frequency of HBoV in children less than 3 years, to characterize its seasonal distribution, and to carry out phylogenetic analysis of HBoV strains circulating in Isfahan, Iran. We also studied the

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, Portorož, 6–7 December, 2002, p. 43. Toplak, I., Grom, J., Hostnik, P. and Barlić-Maganja, D. (2004): Phylogenetic analysis of type 2 porcine circoviruses identified in wild boar in Slovenia. Vet. Rec. 155 , 178

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Ágnes Dencs, Ágnes Farkas, Mónika Gyugos, Andrea Kurcz, Erzsébet Puskás, B. Tresó, Erzsébet Rusvai, Erzsébet Barcsay, and Mária Takács

345 Pourkarim, M. R., Verbeeck, J., Rahman, M., Amini-Bavil-Olyaee, S., Forier, A. M., Lemey, P., Maes, P., Van Ranst, M.: Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis B virus full-length genomes

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Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA, EC 4.1.2.13) catalyzes an aldol cleavage of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate to dihydroxyacetone-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and a reversible aldol condensation. Three candidate genes with 1077bp coding for fructose-bisphosphate aldolase were cloned and sequenced in wheat, barley and rye. These genes could encode 358 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis indicated that wheat, barley and rye FBA genes were conserved with high identity (94.13%), while maize sequence had a 9bp deletion near the 3’ terminal. According to the alignment of 75 amino acid sequences, conserved domains of the FBAs were detected. These conserved domains might be the important functional sites of the FBAs. The cytoplasmic FBAs of wheat, barley and rye were clustered together, and the cluster was close to maize and rice FBAs. Nine peptides of the FBAs and the last amino acid Tyr (necessary for preference for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate over fructose 1-phosphate) were most conserved in plants, animals and algae. Current findings suggested that the FBAs could be divided into three main subgroups: plant cytoplasmic FBA, plant chloroplastic FBA and animal FBA. These results also indicated that the active and binding sites of FBAs had rare variations during the long-term evolution.

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In the present study, canine distemper virus (CDV) was investigated in 20 dogs having nervous signs arousing the clinical suspicion of canine distemper (CD). A total of 13 animals (65%) were stray dogs and had no accurate record about the vaccination history. Clinical examinations revealed that the majority (85%) of the animals showed systemic form characterised by predominantly nervous symptoms accompanied by mild respiratory system signs whilst the remaining cases (15%) recorded mainly respiratory distress. CDV RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) only in 45% of the suspected cases. Phylogenetic analysis of partial nucleotide sequence of the P gene coding region revealed that the virus is closely related to European strains. Immune responses in 13 cases (65%), which were detected by dot-ELISA, indicated inefficient levels for neutralising functions against CDV. It was postulated that this response could have been mediated by either previous vaccination or mild infection with field strains.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Renáta Dóró, Szilvia Marton, Anett Horváth Bartókné, György Lengyel, Zsófia Agócs, Ferenc Jakab, and Krisztián Bányai

adjusted in the GeneDoc software [12] , whereas phylogenetic analysis by the maximum-likelihood and the neighbor-joining methods were performed by using the MEGA5 software [13] . For the maximum-likelihood tree, the best fit nucleotide substitution models

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Crespo, A., Blanco, O., Llimona, X., Ferencová, Z. and Hawksworth, D. L. (2004): Coscinocladium, an overlooked endemic and monotypic Mediterranean lichen genus of Physciaceae, reinstated by molecular phylogenetic analysis. — Taxon 53 (2): 405

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Fedorenko, N. M., Stenroos, S., Thell, A., Kärnefelt, I. and Kondratyuk, S. (2009): A phylogenetic analysis of xanthorioid lichens (Teloschistaceae, Ascomycota) based on ITS and mtSSU sequences. — Bibl. Lichenol. 100 : 49

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The qac genes of Staphylococcus species encode multidrug efflux pumps: membrane proteins that export toxic molecules and thus increase tolerance to a variety of compounds such as disinfecting agents, including quaternary ammonium compounds (for which they are named), intercalating dyes and some antibiotics. In Stapylococcus species, six different plasmid-encoded Qac efflux pumps have been described, and they belong to two major protein families. QacA and QacB are members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, while QacC, QacG, QacH, and QacJ all belong to the Small Multidrug Resistance (SMR) family. Not all SMR proteins are called Qac and the reverse is also true, which has caused confusion in the literature and in gene annotations. The discovery of qac genes and their presence in various staphylococcal populations is briefly reviewed. A sequence comparison revealed that some of the PCR primers described in the literature for qac detection may miss particular qac genes due to lack of DNA conservation. Despite their resemblance in substrate specificity, the Qac proteins belonging to the two protein families have little in common. QacA and QacB are highly conserved in Staphylococcus species, while qacA was also detected in Enterococcus faecalis, suggesting that these plasmid-born genes have spread across bacterial genera. Nevertheless, these qacA and qacB genes are quite dissimilar to their closest homologues in other organisms. In contrast, SMR-type Qac proteins display considerable sequence variation, despite their short length, even within the Staphylococcus genus. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes identified similarity to a large number of other SMR members, found in staphylococci as well as in other genera. A number of phylogenetic trees of SMR Qac proteins are presented here, starting with genes present in S. aureus and S. epidermidis, and extending this to related genes found in other species of this genus, and finally to genes found in other genera.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: T. O. Kondratiuk, S. Y. Kondratyuk, M. V. Khimich, T. V. Beregova, and L. I. Ostapchenko

– 46 . http://dx.doi.org/10.17721/1728_2748.2015.70.42-46 Kondratyuk , T. O. , Jeong , M.-H. , Hur , J.-S. and Kondratyuk , S. Ya. ( 2013 ): Phylogenetic analysis of

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