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2001 folyamán néhány szociológus és vezető szociális munkás a Fővárosi Közigazgatási Hivatal megbízásából mintegy negyven budapesti szociális intézménynél folytatott módszertani ellenőrzést. Ezeket az intézményeket nonprofit szervezetek, vállalkozók, egyházak és önkormányzatok tartják fenn. A tapasztalatok alapján megállapítható, hogy gyakorlatilag befejeződött a fővárosban működő szociális ellátó intézmények igaz­gatásrendészeti megalapozása, és jelentősen előrehaladt a professzionalizálódás. A módszertani munka további fázisában szükséges a módszertan fejlesztése és az ellenőrzések, felülvizsgálatok metodológiájának kimunkálása is.

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, various trace elements (e.g., Al, Ti, Ge, Na, K, Li, and B) ( Götze et al. 2004 ) may appear connected to SiO 4 tetrahedrons under different physical conditions; thus, metamorphic evolution determines the chemical composition of quartz ( Monecke et

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Abstract  

One of Faulkner’s Yoknapatawpha novels and short stories that pays special attention to the production of water symbolism is his The Sound and the Fury. Water in all its physical conditions and manifestations (branch, river, rain, tears, ice, wet drawers, wet clothes, bathing, bathroom, dropsy, mud, etc.) is present in Benjy’s, Quentin’s, Jason’s and Dilsey’s discourses and, consequently, acquires different symbolic meanings. They can be read in the context of purity, restoration, female sexuality, resistance/subversion and control/manipulation.

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Structure-dynamic finite-element simulations of electrical machines allow for vibration analysis concerning geometric variants of the regarded motor without prototyping. In general, the huge disadvantage of these types of simulations is their high computational efforts. In this paper a novel method for the transformation of the surface-force density from the electromagnetic to the mechanical model of the machine is introduced leading to a significant acceleration and more accurate results. For any electric machine whose physical conditions allow for 2-dimensional electromagnetic simulation these advantages can be taken as the results of an induction machine with squirrel-cage rotor show exemplarily.

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Within the framework of cooperation between Szent István University and the Vienna University of Agricultural Sciences, a soil cultivation experiment in a maize (Zea mays L.) monoculture was set up for the first time in Austria near Pyhra (Lower Austria) in 1996. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ridge tillage (RT) in comparison with conventional mouldboard ploughing in autumn (CT) and no-tillage (NT) on the penetration resistance (PR), soil bulk density (BD) and porosity (P) of sandy loam soil (Typic Agriudoll). Analyses were made for each treatment and for different parts of the ridge (top and side of the ridge, and interrow) in 1998, 2000 and 2002. The average PR and BD values were greatest in the no-tillage plot, being 3.42 MPa and 1.56 g·cm-3, respectively. After six years, ridge tillage resulted in lower penetration resistance and bulk density values in the upper 20 cm than conventional tillage and no-tillage. Ridge tillage appears capable of reducing compaction in this soil. It can be concluded from the results that ridge tillage is capable of maintaining and improving favourable physical conditions in the soil.

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In the Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks of the Bükk Mountains the imprints of a polyphase deformation and an anchi-epizonal metamorphism were observed. The physical conditions of this metamorphism were the same as that of the earliest, ductile deformation phase. The imprints of later deformation phases can generally be distinguished by their tectonic style. Our investigation was focused on the style of folding and on the different textural elements of limestone which developed during the early deformation phase. According to lithologic conditions and geographical position, the folds show a certain style variety. The multilayer fold geometry depends on the thickness ratio and the competence contrast between the layers. In the occurrence of different textural patterns the position within a fold and the pre-deformational grain size play an important role. The main deformation mechanism in the fine-grained matrix was pressure solution, while coarse-grained crystal aggregates show signs of dynamic recrystallization, which in some cases leads as far as the development of mylonitic texture and strong lattice-preferred orientation. The differences in spatial style of the same rock types provide a basis for defining tectofacial units in the eastern part of the Bükk Mts.

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New mineral paragenetic, illite Kübler index, chlorite “crystallinity”, apparent crystallite thickness, lattice strain, and K-white mica geobarometric data proved that the Eoalpine (Paleozoic-Mesozoic) metamorphic complex was affected by medium-pressure, high-temperature anchizonal regional metamorphism, whereas the Jurassic ophiolitic mélange and the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene sedimentary sequence of Mt. Medvednica were diagenetically altered. Mineral chemical investigations carried out on phyllosilicate flakes found in various microstructural positions revealed complete mineral chemical homogenization of chlorite and K-white mica of selected slate samples from the Eoalpine (Paleozoic-Mesozoic) metamorphic complex. One possible explanation of this feature is an Alpine (Cretaceous) regional metamorphic event with polyphase deformational history. Variscan low-temperature metamorphism overprinted by an Alpine (Cretaceous) event, with temperatures at least as high as those of the Variscan one, may be an alternative, although more complicated explanation. However, no isotope geochronological evidence supports this assumption. At present only one metamorphic event can be detected. Its physical conditions were ca. 350-400 °C on the basis of illite Kübler index and chlorite Al(IV) empirical thermometers and 3-4 kbar using K-white mica b cell dimension measurements.

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Gradients of physical conditions and biological interactions of species may generate assembly patterns of trait-convergence and trait-divergence in the structure of plant communities. Here we report evidence on the effect of canopy closure on non-random patterns in the functional structure of herbaceous plant communities in temperate forest. We evaluated SLA (specific leaf area), leaf area and shape, dry matter content, presence of rhizomes, and plant height and inclination. In one of the three sites surveyed we found clear patterns of both trait-convergence and trait-divergence. Along the canopy closure gradient we observed communities formed by species with large SLA and long and narrow leaves being replaced by communities formed by species with smaller SLA and rounded leaves, which we interpret as environmental filtering producing such a trait-convergence. Further, communities located in more open sites contained more distinct species in terms of SLA, leaf area and leaf shape, i.e., indicating a divergence pattern along the canopy closure gradient. The other study sites showed no significant patterns when analyzed alone. When the three sites were analyzed jointly, a significant pattern of convergence for plant inclination was found. Although subjected to local variation and historical agents, our study presents consistent patterns of both trait-convergence and divergence and evidence of assembly rules and non-random patterns in communities of herbaceous plants along a canopy closure gradient.

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Összefoglalás

Kemenesy Ernőt 1921–1945 között kiváló gazdaként és gazda szakíróként, ezt követően haláláig (1985) példamutató kutatóként, oktatóként, máig időszerű szakmai könyvek szerzőjeként tartjuk számon. Az ésszerű szervesanyag gazdálkodás első szószólóinak egyike, s nevéhez fűződik biológiai talajművelés feltételeinek és módszereinek kidolgozása. Jelen tanulmányban felidézzük az általa meghonosított, és gyakran használt szakmai kifejezéseket – talaj ősállapota, talajerő, talajerő-gazdálkodás, humuszgazdálkodás, tartós szerkezet, művelhetőség. A biológiai szemléletű talajművelés bemutatásával a még napjainkban is előforduló sablonosságok elkerülésére, a talaj biológiai életének, szervesanyagának, szerkezetének és nedvességének kímélésére irányítjuk a figyelmet.

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