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important task in the hands of schools: to provide opportunities for quality physical activity and to also educate youth in physical education, sports and health-promoting activities. One of the key goals of the school environment is to influence students in

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: Zs. Mészáros, K. Kiss, M. Szmodis, M. Zsidegh, M. Mavroudes, and János Mészáros

J, Szmodis I (1977): Indices of physique and motor performance in pupils attending schools with a special physical education curriculum. In: Growth and Developnemt; Physique. Ed: Eiben OG, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, pp. 253

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A healthy Hungarian society in 2025: Vision or possible reality?

Inexpensive preventive action plans, instead of a costly reorganization of public health services, for shaping health-conscious, future-oriented thinking

Society and Economy
Author: Zoltán Vass

Barkoukis, V. — Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. — Ntoumanis, N. — Nikitaras, N. (2007): Achievement Goals in Physical Education: Examining the Predictive Ability of Five Different Dimensions of Motivational Climate

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Review of Sport Science, Special Issue 11 14 Ángyán L, Farkas G, Rugási E: Trends in prevention-oriented physical education. ICSSPE Bulletin 36, 10

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Hungarian Medical Journal
Authors: Kinga Balla, István Gyene, Klára Szentágothai, Zsuzsa Bak, and Györgyi Mezei

Gyene, I.: Physical education as therapy for asthmatic children. Journal of the International Council for Health Physical Education and Recreation, 1990, 26 , 4. Gyene I

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There are historical facts that Philip II was a triplex Olympic victor and he started to build the Philippeum in Olympia. It is noteworthy that the friendly connections between Macedonia and Olympia were established by Alexander I, who could hellenize his own country, and these contacts became more intensive during the rule of Philip II, who planned to hellenize the eastern territories. Philip was an outstanding athlete according to several historical sources. The soldier king had good physical abilities and he took care of the physical education of his son, Alexander with particular attention.

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Abstract

Aims  Undergraduate education in physical education is widely common in Turkey. Postgraduate training is provided mostly by institutes of health sciences, educational science and social sciences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of PhD theses in sports sciences. Methods  The database of the Turkish Council of Higher Education has been searched the years 1988–2002 for PhD theses with different combinations of keywords like “Sport(s)”, “All Dissertations” and “Physical Education”. Theses were classified according to the institute, year, university, the title of the mentors and the field of sports sciences. The inter-and intra-validity of ratings were high (Kendall Tau_b=0.84 and 1.00, p <0.01). Results  Most of theses were prepared in Institutes for Health Sciences (n=196, 86.3%), second mostly in Institutes of Social Sciences (n=25, 11.0%). Theses originated mostly from Marmara (n=90, 39.6%), Gazi (n=59, 25.9%) and Dokuz Eyll Universities (n=25, 11.0%). Ninety two theses (46.9%) were prepared in Training and Movement Sciences, 40 (20.4%) in Sports Management, 29 (14.7%) Psycho-Social Fields of Sports Sciences, 23 (11.7%) Sports Health Sciences and 13 (6.6%) in Sports Pedagogy. Conclusion  Most theses were prepared in Institutes of Health Sciences, but the subjects covered the field of training and movement sciences. The unique and multi-disciplinary nature of sports sciences seems to warrant the foundation of an Institute of Sports.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: A. Prókai, J. Mészáros, Zs. Mészáros, A. Photiou, I. Vajda, and Á. Sziva

Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is a serious social and health problem both in the economically developed and developing countries. Despite this fact the nation-wide growth studies completed in Hungary during the past 30 years had not categorised the children either by body fat content or nutritional status. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obese boys in the country at the beginning of the new millennium.Height, body mass and four skinfold thicknesses were measured in 7173 volunteer boys aged between 7 and 10 and living in various urban and rural settlements of Hungary between 2003 and 2005. Nutritional status was qualified by the BMI and relative body fat content. The significantly increasing prevalence with age of overweight and obesity ranged between 10.3 and 23.4%. The results showed the joint effects of a secular trend of growth and of a remarkably changed lifestyle. Of these the consequences of the lifestyle are the more important ones. The high and possibly further increasing prevalence of child-age overweight and obesity reminds one of the observations of Kopp and associates (5), namely that of the increased prevalence of chronic childhood diseases during the past 15 years. More intense habitual physical activity and dramatic changes in dietary habits still promise some solution. No one should reckon, however, with the efficiency of physical education at the schools with its very few classes.

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The prevalence of overweight or fat children and adolescents has markedly increased in Hungary during the past three decades. Among the possible factors insufficient physical activity and a relative or absolute excess of calorie intake associated to it can be regarded as the most important ones. The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of a 20-week aerobic exercise on body composition and on the exercise tested cardio-respiratory functions in 10-year-old obese boys. Obesity was defined by a BMI greater than the cut-off value reported by Cole and co-workers (5) and a relative body fat content above 30% (13). Of the study group 21 volunteer children completed the program; the contrast group contained 28 obese boys. Mean calendar age was 10.03±0.26 in the study group (S) and 9.88±0.29 in the control group (C). The members of group S had two curricular physical education (PE) classes a week and three extracurricular aerobic physical activity sessions of 60 min net time in the afternoon, on Mondays (swimming and water games), Wednesdays (folk dance) and Fridays (soccer). Group C had only 2 PE classes a week. Anthropometric and spiroergometric data were collected in the middle of January and June of 2004. Relative body fat content and BMI did not increase during the observation period in contrast to the significant increase of both in the control group. Peak minute ventilation, aerobic power, oxygen pulse, and running distance (performed on a treadmill) increased in group S, and did not change in group C.The program was considered successful despite that the changes in the observed physiological and physical indicators appeared to be slight. However, the 5-month elevated level of physical activity brought about such development in the physical status of the obese subjects that might be an appropriate basis for regular training. Fortunately, the cardio-respiratory functions of the investigated boys were not affected yet by obesity, consequently the really dramatic change in their further lifestyle exclusively depends on their decision.

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References 1. Broadhead GD , Church GE : Influence of test selection on physical education placement of mentally retarded children . Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly . 1 , 112 – 117 ( 1984 ) 2. Buday J , Kaposi I

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