Authors:Dragan Radovanovic, N. Ponorac, A. Ignjatovic, N. Stojiljkovic, T. Popovic, and A. Rakovic
Race walking is the technical and athletic expression of fast walking and it can be considered as a type of endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 12 weeks of a specially designed training program results in the further training enhancement of endurance performance and the related physiological parameters in already well-trained race walkers competing at the national and international level. The investigation protocol consisted of determining the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and related gas exchange values using an automated cardiopulmonary exercise system and of determining blood lactate variables (aerobic threshold — LTAer and the maximal lactate steady state — MLSS) during walking with proper technique at 8, 10, 12 and 14 km·h−1 for 4 minutes without rest in between. Thereafter, the speed on the treadmill was increased by 0.5 km·h−1 every two minutes until exhaustion to determine VO2peak. After 12 weeks of a specially designed endurance training, statistically significant increases in VO2peak (61.8±8.5 mL·kg−1·min-1 pre vs. 66.9±9.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 post training; p<0.05) and blood lactate variables (VO2-LTAer and VO2-MLSS; p<0.05) were noted. The obtained results suggest that the applied training program can improve endurance and race performance in previously well trained race walkers.
Authors:É. Bretz, D.É. Kóbor-Nyakas, K.J. Bretz, N. Hrehuss, Z. Radák, and Csaba Nyakas
Regular assessment of psycho-physiological parameters in aged subjects helps to clarify physical and mental conditions which are important in the prevention of health-endangering events to assure a healthy aging. Thirty older care female residents consented voluntarily to participate in the study. The somatic and psycho-physiological parameters recorded were handgrip force, disjunctive reaction time, balance control and whole body movement coordination, the electrocardiogram and heart rate variability. Significant correlations were found between (a) reaction time and balance control efficiency (r = −0.567, p < 0.009), (b) reaction time and movement coordination accuracy (r = −0.453, p < 0.045), (c) cardiac state and movement coordination accuracy (r = 0.545, p < 0.016), (d) cardiac stress and cardiac state (r = −0.495, p < 0.031), and (e) cardiac stress and force (r = −0.822, p < 0.045). In conclusion, for the aim of establishing basic battery tests for assessing psycho-physiological condition of physical fitness our results emphasize the importance of systematic physical activity, endurance and strength training supporting muscle force, balance control and whole-body movement coordination, in addition to improving the cardiac stress index level. The strong interrelation among these parameters allows the drawing of a more complete view regarding the health condition of aged individuals.
Authors:E. Németh, K. Bretz, P. Sótonyi, Károly Bretz, T. Horváth, J. Tihanyi, E. Zima, and T. Barna
The aim of our study was to investigate changes in psycho-physiological parameters evoked by short duration, intensive physical stress on university students practicing judo at different intensities and timely manner. Stability of posture, muscle strength (hand force exertions), attention concentration (choice reaction time), cardiac parameters, (ECG, heart rate, heart rate variability), and oxygen saturation were measured, cardiac state and stress index were computed before and after the physical stress. The actual psychic state of the subjects was evaluated using the Spielberger’s STPI-H Y-1 test which determined anxiety, curiosity, anger and depression level. Analysis of psychometric and physiologic parameters indicated significant correlations, among others, between force and cardiac stress (−), force and depression (−), anxiety and errors in actions (+), cardiac state and errors in action (−), cardiac state and depression (−). Paired samples tests showed the influence of intensive physical stress within groups of students, and independent samples tests made it possible to evaluate the power of medical and sport students, performing physical training at a significantly higher level than it is usual among the medical students. Our results proved that higher level physical training influences the psychic state advantageously, limits increases in cardiac stress level, and decreases susceptibility to anxiety and depression.
Authors:R. Jasan, T. Verburg, H. Wolterbeek, R. Plá, and M. Pignata
The lichen Ramalina celastri (Spreng.) Krog. & Swinsc. was used to study trace-element atmospheric pollution in Córdoba (Argentina). 38 samples from a 1999 campaign were analyzed by NAA and a number of physiological parameters was determined. In first-ever comparisons, no correlations were found between altitude, physiological parameters and determined elements, which allowed the full comparison of element data in lichen samples throughout the whole survey area. After the application of Monte Carlo assisted factor analysis to the elemental matrix, five source profiles were found and mapped. The attribution of the sources is discussed.
In this study, the changes caused by chilling stress on some physiological parameters of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) plant and the effects of ascorbic acid (100 mM) applied exogenously on these changes were examined. For this purpose, the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophylls and carotenoids), ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, malondialdehyde and proline contents in leaves of pepino taken on 5th and 10th days were determined. As a result of chilling stress, it was found that while the photosynthetic pigments and proline contents decreased in pepino leaves, the ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds and malondialdehyde contents increased. In plants which were subjected to pre-treatment of ascorbic acid on the 10th day of stress, ascorbic acid and proline contents increased while a decrease was observed in malondialdehyde content, compared to stress group without pre-treated. This study may be important for explaining resistance induced by treatment of exogenous ascorbic acid in pepino exposed to chilling stress.
Az élő szervezet oxigénfelvétele a cardiorespiratoricus rendszeren keresztül a legalapvetőbb élettani folyamatok közé tartozik. A felvevőképesség az egészség és a teljesítőképesség egyik fontos paramétere. Az utóbbi évtizedben kísérletek történtek a hiperoxigenizáció respiratoricus rendszert kikerülő eljárásának kidolgozására. Az oxigénnel dúsított ásványvíz fogyasztása és hidromasszázsként történő alkalmazása is ilyen eljárás. A tanulmányban két eljárás kombinációját 3 hetes kúra során 57 önként jelentkező túlsúlyos személyen (átlagértékek: testtömegindex 29,5±5,5; testzsírszázalék 35,2±8,6) alkalmazták, és a kombinált eljárást oxihidromasszázsnak nevezték. A kúra előtt és után meghatároztak egyes szomatikus, valamint a hiperoxigenizációt igazoló paramétereket. Az adatokból kiderült, hogy a testtömeg 2,3±1,9 kg-mal, a testzsírarány 3,2±2,7%-kal és a testtömegindex 0,7±0,5-del csökkent átlagosan. Hiperoxidáció a vizsgáltak 68–75%-ánál, szomatikus változások a 79–83%-uknál következtek be, és 5%-os szinten szignifikánsak voltak. Feltehető, hogy a hiperoxigenizáció hatására az izomrost mitochondriumában az oxidatív (aerob) energiaszolgáltatás felgyorsult, és ez a zsírok oxidációját is elősegítette. Megállapítható, hogy az oxihidromasszázs-kezeléssel kiváltott hiperoxigenizáció a vizsgáltak nagy részére kedvezően hatott; további terápiás alkalmazása, különösen egyéb vasodilatatiós eljárással (például biomágneses kezeléssel) még hatékonyabb lehet.
Authors:J. Janan, L. Bárdos, Mária Karsai, Gabriella Ágota, Péter Rudas, J. Kozák, and L. Bódi
The susceptibility of geese of different genotypes and sexes to force-feeding, some plasma biochemical parameters (thyroid hormones, cholesterol, retinoids, total protein and albumin) of force-fed geese, and the relationship between force-feeding, fat storage and the above-mentioned parameters were studied. Sixty (30 male and 30 female) geese of three genotypes (Hungarian, Landes and their crossbred called Babat Hybrid) were divided in two groups at 12 weeks of age. Geese in one group (5 males and 5 females from each genotype) received mixed feedingad libitum. Birds in the other group were force-fed with maize. After 3 weeks all birds were bled, blood samples were taken, and the above-mentioned plasma parameters were determined. Thyroxine (T4) levels were significantly lower in force-fed (11.6 ± 3.5 ng/ml) than in control geese (22.7 ± 4.09 ng/ml). Plasma triiodothyronine (T3) level was also lower in the force-fed than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (1.87 ± 0.23 ng/ml and 2.11 ± 0.28 ng/ml, respectively). Plasma total protein (TP, 45.2 ± 4.5 g/l), albumin (ALB, 16.51 ± 2.8 g/l), (-carotene (BC, 3504 ± 3107 µg/l), retinol (ROL, 1160 ± 505 µg/l), retinyl palmitate (RP, 1745 ± 405 µg/l) and total cholesterol (TCh, 4.32 ± 0.55 mmol/l) levels were elevated in the force-fed group as compared to the control (TP = 36.4 ± 5.1 g/l, ALB = 15.6 ± 0.9 g/l, BC = 1657 ± 1681 µg/l, ROL = 687 ± 375 µg/l, RP = 1398 ± 607 µg/l, and TCh = 2.83 ± 1.98 mmol/l). All differences were significant except those found for albumin and (-carotene. No significant sex- or genotype-related effects were observed for these parameters.
In this study, Eruca sativa (Rocket) seedlings were treated with different cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 150, 300 and 450 μg ∙ g−1). The effects of Cd on lipid peroxidation, enzymatic (APx, CAT, GPX, SOD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (total ascorbate, dehydroascorbate, ascorbate, non-protein thiol), fresh and dry masses, water content were determined. Also, Cd content of the leaves and the roots were analysed. The highest cadmium accumulation of leaves was at 450 μg ∙ g−1 Cd treatment and the accumulation was 2.62 times greater than those in the roots. The translocation factor was 3.89 at 300 μg ∙ g−1 Cd treatment. Cd treatments caused decreases of fresh, dry mass and water content of leaves and roots. Malondialdehyde content, which is an index of lipid peroxidation, was increased in proportion with the increase in Cd. While there was not change in the activity of GPX according to control, a decrease in activities of SOD, CAT and APX were observed with the increase of cadmium concentration. Although a significant increase in the amounts of non-protein thiol groups and proline were observed in 450 μg ∙ g−1 Cd treated plants, Cd did not lead to a significant change in AsA, DHA and total AsA contents. According to the results of the research, E. sativa may be a Cd hyperaccumulator plant and we suggest that the plant may be a candidate plant for remediation of Cd-contaminated soil.
Authors:A. Zebarjadi, H. Ghasempour, and Z. Soheilikhah
The aim of the work was to evaluate the callus induction response and in vitro drought tolerance of eight genotypes of safflower. The experiment was laid out as a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. To evaluate the drought tolerance of the genotypes, growing calli were exposed to drought stress after two subcultures by adding different concentrations of mannitol to the culture medium for one month. Under stress conditions, the genotypes were compared in terms of proline content, cell viability, relative growth rate, ion content (Na+ and K+), relative water content and index of tolerance. Drought affected all the measured biochemical and physiological factors and there were significant differences between the tested genotypes. The proline content increased in drought-stressed calli, and mannitol, as a stress agent, stimulated the synthesis of proline in all the genotypes, especially at the highest concentration (505 mM), whereas the ion contents, cell viability, RWC, RGR and index of tolerance exhibited a significant decrease. This suggested that these biochemical and physiological traits could be used to predict the drought tolerance of safflower genotypes. The results indicated that the cultivars Isfahan and LRV-51-51 were more drought-tolerant under in vitro conditions than the other genotypes.