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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: László Simon, Marianna Makádi, Zsuzsanna Uri, Szabolcs Vigh, Katalin Irinyiné-Oláh, György Vincze, and Csilla Tóth

et al., 2020; SALETNIK et al., 2020; WÓJCIK et al., 2020). This may have an impact on the toxic metal concentration of harvested shoots and thus also on the toxic metal concentration of ash after biomass burning. Phytoextraction is the use of plants

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Summary  

The phytoremediation potential of native trees in a U and Th contaminated wetland was examined. Based on measurements of the annual biomass of leaves and their contaminant concentrations, we estimated the reduction in soil contamination over time. Significant differences among tree species were found, with tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) having a significantly greater capacity to remove U and Th from the soil than the other tree species. More U was phytoextracted than Th from the site. Phytoextraction rate constants were developed and revealed that although U and Th phytoextraction was exceptionally high at the site, an order of magnitude greater than predicted, the community of native trees would lower the soil inventory of 238U and 232 Th by only 1& over the next 100 years.

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Abstract  

This study deals with an efficiency of a low dose of citric acid soil application on phytoextraction of uranium. Willow (Salix spp.) and sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) were tested in this experiment with contaminated soil. The enhancing of uranium bioaccumulation was confirmed, but in contrast to previous studies, the highest quantity of uranium was accumulated in leaves. After 5 weeks of citric acid treatment, willow was more efficient in the uptake and translocation of uranium than sunflower. The transfer coefficient calculated for leaves increased from 0.033 (control) to 0.74, or 0.56 after five doses of 5 mmol of citric acid per 1 kg of soil for willow or sunflower, respectively. The uptake characterized by the total U content achieved 88 and 108 mg kg−1 in relation to the above ground parts of sunflower and willow, respectively. Even though both plants accumulated U in their above ground parts in significant rate, they employed diverse ways to achieve it. At the end of the treatment, the physiological condition of the plants enabled us to continue this method.

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Basket willow (Salix viminalis L.) was grown in open-field experiment. The brown forest soil (sand texture, pHKCl 7.7, humus 1.6%, CEC 11.5 cmolc/kg; Cd-0.11, Cu-7.1, Pb-8.1, Zn-25.0 mg/kg in aqua regia extract) was treated with municipal sewage sludge compost (MSSC) (25 t/ha wet weight, 12.8 t/ha dry weight in 2009; 50 and 100 t/ha wet weight, 25.4 t/ha and 50.8 t/ha dry weight in 2008). The MSSC was moderately contaminated with toxic metals (Cd-<0.5, Cu-140, Pb-19, Zn-440 mg/kg in aqua regia extract in 2008, and Cd-<0.5, Cu-299, Pb-69, Zn-865 mg/kg in aqua regia extract in 2009). Accumulation of Zn in treated willow leaves doubled 4 months after 25 t/ha MSSC application, while in treated twig tips 30% less Zn was found than in control. Zn (max. 133 mg/kg d.w.), Cd (max. 1.15 mg/kg d.w.) and Cu (max. 7.73 mg/kg d.w.) accumulations in leaves or twig tips of basket willow were 16 months after 50 or 100 t/ha MSSC application. Twenty months after MSSC application in the harvested twigs (shoots without leaves) of 50 or 100 t/ha MSSC-treated cultures the Zn concentrations were only 9.8–14.3% higher than in controls. We suppose that there is not a direct danger of considerable Zn accumulation in the bioash after incineration of MSSC-treated willow shoots in biomass power plants.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: M. Freitas, A. Pacheco, H. Anawar, I. Dionísio, H. Dung, N. Canha, A. Bettencourt, F. Henriques, C. Pinto-Gomes, and S. Capelo

Abstract  

This study has determined contamination levels in soils and plants from the São Domingos mining area, Portugal, by k 0-INAA. Total concentrations of As, Sb, Cr, Hg, Cu, Zn and Fe in soils were very high, exceeding the maximum limits in Portuguese legislation. Concentrations of toxic elements like As, Sb and Zn were highest in roots of Erica andevalensis, Juncus acutus, Agrostis castellana and Nicotiana glauca. Additionally, As, Br, Cr, Fe, Sb and Zn in all organs of most plants were above toxicity levels. Those species that accumulated relatively high concentrations of toxic elements in roots (and tops) may be cultivated for phytostabilisation of similar areas.

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: György Czira, László Simon, György Vincze, József Koncz, and Gyula Lakatos

, Veszprém, 2012. április 18–21 2012 De Araújo, J. D. C. T. & Nascimento, C. W. A. , 2010. Phytoextraction of lead

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Szelén fitoextrakciója és mikrobacsoportok előfordulása szennyezett talajokban

Phytoextraction of selenium and occurrence of microbial groups in contaminated soils

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Simon László, Biró Borbála, Széles Éva, and Balázsy Sándor

. et al ., 2006 . Phytoextraction Of Selenium From Contaminated Soils With Indian Mustard, Fodder Radish And Alfalfa. In: Proc. Internat. Symp. On Trace Elements In The Food Chain . (Eds.: SZILÁGYI M . & SZENTMIHÁLYI K .). 40 – 44 . Working

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Abstract

This paper presents the results of the floristical examinations performed in the units of a former secondary sedimentation pond system in Hungary. The outcome of analyses on the chromium content of the plants is discussed. Beside the chemical analyses, observations on the plants, the characterization of the ecological state of plant stands adapted to heavy metal load. Results of the elemental analysis for heavy metals revealed that none of the plants constituting the natural vegetation can be treated as hyperaccumulator plant. A green cover and the detoxification process of Cr(VI) by plants is suggested to be more important than the present extensive phytoextraction procedure. It can be stated that due to the disturbance our investigated area has diverse vegetation, in addition these plants can tolerate a high concentration of heavy metals, and they are able to take up them.

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Arsenic, the toxic metalloid, widely available in the natural ecosystem, poses serious problem through contaminated groundwater and drinking water. The emerging areas of arsenic hazards in agricultural systems through use of contaminated irrigation water and entry of toxin in crops has been largely overlooked. Arsenic accumulation by plants and its translocation to edible parts were observed to vary within crops and also across the cultivars. Wheat is an alternative choice of summer rice, due to low water requirement. With this background, the current experiment was conducted with four popular wheat cultivars to study the arsenic accumulation and varietal tolerance under different soils and groundwater. The arsenic content was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Result revealed that, wheat cultivars differed in their grain arsenic concentration (0.23–1.22 mg kg−1), which differed across the sites and year of experiment. The arsenic translocation in wheat grains usually least, and accumulation by different tissues followed the order root > stem > leaf > grain across the cultivars. The cultivar UP-262 was found to accumulate least arsenic in grains and cultivar Kalyansona the highest under same growing condition, due to phyto-extraction or phyto-morphological potential of the varieties.

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Total mineral uptake capacity of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. giromontiina) grown in an experimental field at Gödöllő was studied. The mineral content of the soil (brown acidic sandy forest soil) showed unexpectedly high content (mg kg−1 DW) of Ba (95.5), Cr (32.9), Ni (27.8), Pb (15.4) and Zn (53.3). Boron (B) concentration of the soil was relatively low (7.1 mg kg−1 DW), but its bioaccumulation content in root, (2.5) shoot, (33.1) and leaf (50.1) tissues of the plant (mg kg−1 DW). Zinc (Zn) was also bioaccumulated in the plant with contents (mg kg−1 DW) of 47.1 (roots), 23.0 (shoots) and 56.1 (leaves) as compared with 53.3 (in the soil). Toxic element exclusion was observed in zucchini (mg kg−1 DW) concerning Ba (29.0), Co (0.2), Cr (5.3), Ni (5.8) and Pb (3.4) measured in the roots when compared with their concentrations in the soil: Ba (95.5), Co (10.2), Cr (32.9), Ni (27.8) and Pb (15.4). In silico sequence analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of aquaporins (NIP, TIP, SIP and Si-TRP), boron-exporters (BOR), and rbcL of cpDNA revealed plant species with high sequence similarities to the sequences of Cucurbits, which predicted additional plants with intensive mineral (B and Zn) uptake capacity, similar to Cucurbits with phytoextraction potential.

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