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ERECTA is an ancient family of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (RLKs) that coordinate growth and development of plant. TaERECTA, one copy of the ERECTA homologs in wheat, was isolated from bread wheat Chinese Spring. The Ser/Thr kinase of TaERECTA was expressed in E. coli after IPTG induction and confirmed by immunoblot. TaERECTA showed higher expression in younger organs with rapid development, as well as great expression in younger spikes at booting stage. Under exogenous application of gibberellin (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA), and Mg2+ stress, the expression of TaERECTA was largely suppressed, whereas under exogenous application of indole acetic acid (IAA) and brassinolide (BR), and dehydration stress, its expression was initially suppressed and then up-regulated. Natural variation was apparent in the relative expression of TaERECTA among 9 different bread wheat lines, and its expression level was negatively correlated with the stomatal density. These results suggested that TaERECTA could be exploitable for manipulating agronomical traits important through regulating stomata density, with potential implication for bread wheat improvement.

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Emasculation and bagging of flowers, which are widely used in the controlled pollination of monoclinous plants, may induce premature senescence, flower abscission and low fruit set. To determine the mechanism responsible for these phenomena, levels of abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, soluble sugars, reducing sugars and free amino acids in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) flowers subjected to different treatments were quantified at different developmental stages. The phytohormones and assimilates were also quantified in untreated flowers to investigate the presence of discernible patterns. The levels of ethylene and ABA in emasculated and bagged (EB) flowers increased prematurely compared with those of untreated flowers, whereas the content of reducing sugars in EB flowers decreased compared with that of untreated flowers. These results indicated that the premature increase in ethylene and ABA synthesis, and the decrease in reducing sugars content, in EB flowers may cause flower abscission and result in low fruit set, which may be relevant for assimilate applications and future research on the regulation of controlled pollinations with exogenous phytohormones.

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. J. Biol. Chem., 1999, 274 (44), 31524–31530. Galun, E.: Phytohormones and patterning. The role of hormones in plant architecture. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore, 2010

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Itai, C. 1999. Role of phytohormones in plant response to stresses. In: Lerner, H.R. (ed.), Plant Response to Environmental Stress. From phytohormones to genome reorganization. Marcell Dekker, New York-Basel, pp. 287

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Raheem Shahzad, Muhammad Waqas, Abdul Latif Khan, Khadija Al-Hosni, Sang-Mo Kang, Chang-Woo Seo, and In-Jung Lee

. 4. Boiero , L. , Perrig , D. , Masciarelli , O. , Penna , C. , Cassan , F. , Luna , V. ( 2007 ) Phytohormone production by three strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and possible

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ABA content Accumulation of phytohormone ABA was measured in the Coleus leaves, exposed to drought stress (Fig.  8 ). There was approximately two- and halffold increase in the ABA concentrations in the Coleus leaves subjected to drought

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A field experiment was carried out to investigate the establishment of phosphate-dissolving strains of Azotobacter chroococcum, including soil isolates (wild type) and their mutants, in the rhizosphere and their effect on the growth attributes and root biomass of three genetically divergent wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Four fertilizer doses were applied: 90 kg N ha—1, 90 kg N + 60 kg P2O5ha—1, 120 kg N ha—1and 120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5ha—1, besides a control plot without fertilizers or bioinoculants. Phosphate-solubilizing and phytohormone-producing parent soil isolates and mutant strains of A. chroococcum were isolated and selected following the enrichment method. On an overall basis the mutant strains performed better than the soil isolates for in vitro phosphate solubilization (11–14%) and growth hormone production (11.35%). Seed inoculation of wheat varieties with phosphate-solubilizing and phytohormone-producing A. chroococcum showed a better response over the control. Mutant strains of A. chroococcum showed a higher increase in grain (15.30%) and straw (15.10%) yield over the control and better survival (12–14%) in the rhizosphere as compared to their parent soil isolate (P4). Mutant strain M15 performed better in all three varieties in terms of increase in grain yield (20.8%) and root biomass (20.6%) over the control.

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phytohormones in root-related processes — Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science vol. 168 no. 4 531–540 pp. Merbach W. Plant responses to drought and phosphorus deficiency: contribution

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