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of a major QTL for yellow pigment content on 7Al in durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum ). Mol. Breeding 21 :485–496. Rao V.S. Mapping and validation of a major QTL for

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metals on growth, pigments content and photosynthetic activity of young bean plants. In: III National Conference on Botany, pp 848–853 /in Bulgarian, English abstract/. Merakchiyska, M., S. Paunova, J. Stoinova and S

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41 51 Aldesuquy, H. S. and Baka, Z. A. M. (1998): Interactive effect of seawater and plant hormones on the pigment content and chloroplast ultrastructure of wheat flag leaf

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The present work was carried out to uncover the effect of salinity stress on shoot moisture percentage, pigment content and lipid composition of Ephedra alata Decne. The results suggested that salinity caused significant decrease in plant moisture content. The chl. a, b and carotenoids showed significant decrease with increasing concentration of salt. Total pigment content also showed decline at all salt stress levels. Salt stress caused significant decrease in total lipids (TL), triacylglycerol (TG) and sterol (S) accompanied with an increase in diacylglycerol (DG), sterol ester (SE), and non-esterified fatty acids (FAA) of E. alata. Moreover, saline stress caused significant decrease in all phospholipid fractions except phosphatidic acid which increases during salt stress. Salinity stress resulted in increase of saturated fatty acids and decreases the percentage of un-saturated fatty acids in E. alalta.

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In this review results are summarized regarding the effect of virus infection on the physiological processes of weeds. Through several host-virus model relations the biomass and seed production, seed viability and germination, nutrient uptake, drought-resistance and photosynthetic pigment content of healthy and virus infected plants were compared. Because of their broad host range and high genetic variability viruses cannot be used for biological weed control. It was concluded that viruses unfavourably can influence physiological processes of weeds. Therefore, they may contribute indirectly to the reduction of competitive ability and population of weeds.

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The present study was undertaken to examine the possible roles of sodium nitroprusside in protection against oxidative damage due to zinc toxicity in sunflower plants. Physiochemical parameters in sunflower plants exposed to Zn2+ (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg soil) alone or combined with SNP were measured. The results showed that excess of Zn decreased plant growth, seed yield components and photosynthetic pigments content. On the other hand, Zn stress increased the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, ascrobate peroxidase and glutathione reductase), coupled with the appearance of novel protein bands. Furthermore, Zn stress increased Zn content in roots and shoots. The amounts of Zn in roots were higher than shoots. A marked increase in total saturated fatty acids accompanied by a decrease in total unsaturated fatty acids was observed. Exogenously application of SNP (20 μM) increased growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments content, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents, antioxidant enzyme activities and the quality of the oil in favour of the increase of unsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, SNP application increased Zn concentration in roots and inhibited Zn accumulation in shoots. Therefore, it is concluded that SNP treatment can help reduce Zn toxicity in sunflower plants.

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A pot experimental was conducted to the effect of foliar application of chemical insecticide (malathion) and biological insecticide (yeast emulsion) on growth vigor, pigments content, of bean plants and the quality of vielded seeds as well as its chemical composition. In the majority of cases, the two insecticides appeared to cause pronounced effect on growth parameters during growth of bean plants. Malathion application induced slight increase or marked decrease in pigments content and photosynthetic activity of 50 and 85 days old plant, respectively. On the other hand, yeast emulsion appeared to cause nonsignificant effect on the above-mentioned parameters, all over the growth period of bean plants. Foliar application of malathion caused significant decrease in growth promotery substances (i.e. IAA, GA3and cytokinin) with simultaneous increase in IAA-oxidase as well as abscisic acid content of bean plant. The application of yeast emulsion appeared without significant effect on growth regulators content of bean plants. Moreover, yield and yield attributes as well as the biochemical aspects of yielded seeds showed variable changes in response to malathion and yeast emulsion application.

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The effect of CdCl2(0-50 µM) on the growth, physiological parametersand leaf antioxidative enzymes of faba bean plants was studied in order toinvestigate the possible involvement of this metal in the generationof oxidative stress. In the roots and leaves of faba bean plants Cd produceda significant inhibition of growth, as well as a reduction inthe transpiration rate, photosynthetic efficiency (14CO2-fixation), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity and leaf pigment content, and an alteration in the nutrient status in booth roots and leaves. an increased level of free proline was also detected. The results suggest thatthe treatment of faba bean plants with CdCl2 induced a concentration-dependentoxidative stress situation in the leaves, characterized by an accumulationof  H2O2, as a result of theinhibition of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT). These results point to the possible inductionof leaf senescence by cadmium.

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Triticum urartu has been identified as donor of A genome in the polyploid wheats. An amphiploid derived from the cross between one accession of T. urartu , carrying 1Ax + Ay high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits, and durum wheat cv. Yavaros has been synthesised and used as a bridge species to transfer genetic material from the wild to the cultivated wheat. Some quality traits were evaluated in twenty durum lines derived from this amphiploid after backcrossing to durum. All lines were selected for the presence of 1Ax + Ay but maintaining two different patterns for the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits and grain colour. The lines with red grain showed higher pigment content than those with yellow grain. In addition, the former lines present higher gluten strength than the latter ones.

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This paper reviews the use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for the analysis of neutral lipids and phospholipids in medically and economically important snails (gastropod molluscs). It updates and fills in unintentionally neglected papers from earlier reviews on this topic published in 1990 and 2006 in this journal, and extends coverage to lipophilic pigments for the first time. The review discusses all steps of the TLC procedure, including sample preparation, sample and standard application, layers and mobile phases, detection of zones, and quantification. Significant findings on the effects of temperature, larval parasitism, diet, and environmental changes on the lipid and lipophilic pigment content in the snails as determined by TLC as well as the results of other miscellaneous studies and advantages and future prospects are presented.

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