Authors:Krisztina Bleicher, A. Orosz, J. Cross, and V. Markó
The species richness and composition ofAuchenorrhyncha assemblages in three apple orchards in Kent and East Sussex, England was surveyed in 2001 and 2002. Planthoppers, leafhoppers and froghoppers were collected from the tree canopies using yellow sticky traps and a tree beating technique, and from the grass alleyways between the trees using sweep-netting. As a result of intensive sampling, 67 species were collected in an experimental apple orchard at East Malling Research, with a further 30 and 36 species in two organic apple orchards, situated near Marden and Robertsbridge, respectively. A total of 77 species was recorded in the survey. The collection methods applied determined substantially the size and species composition of the samples, the relative abundance of the Auchenorrhyncha species and proportion of males. The most common species collected in the canopy, in decreasing order were:
Edwardsiana rosae, Empoasca decipiens, Ribautiana debilis, Edwardsiana crataegi, Empoasca vitis, Philaenus spumarius
Gatineau, F., Larrue, J., Clair, D., Lorton, F., Richard-Molard M. and Boudon-Padieu, E. (2001): A new natural planthopper vector of stolbur phytoplasma in the genus
(Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 107, 263
Authors:M. Ali, Salem Alghamdi, M. Begum, A. Anwar Uddin, M. Alam, and Dingcheng Huang
In order to breed rice cultivars for resistance to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (BPH) in Bangladesh, were evaluated for resistance in greenhouse screening tests. Over a period of six years (2005–2010), 1,767 entries/cultivars were screened using the plant hopper screening (PHS) system. The results showed 87 donors possessing different levels of resistance to the BPH. One exotic cultivar was highly resistant to the BPH and 86 materials showed medium resistance (tolerance) to the BPH. The rest of the materials including germplasm, F2, exotic, IRBPHN (International Rice Brown Planthopper Nursery) and advanced lines were susceptible. Most of entries coming from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) via the IRBPHN were moderately resistant.
The role of antibiosis components and antioxidant defense of rice genotypes, namely CR3006-8-2, RP4918-221, KAUM182-1, T12, IHRT-ME-25, W1263, Ptb33 (resistant check) and TN1 (susceptible check) was studied by phenotyping them against brown planthopper (BPH). Three genotypes, namely KAUM182-1, RP4918-221 and CR3006-8-2 were resistant to BPH and significantly low damage score (1.97–3.00); honeydew excretion area (46.76–49.64 mm2); nymphal survival (60.60–66.40%) and growth index (2.98–3.86) was recorded on them. Higher constitutive and induced level of soluble phenolics, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase was observed in resistant genotypes without and with BPH infestation. A negative relationship between honeydew excretion, nymphal emergence, growth index and nymphal survival was observed with these biochemical constituents. Likewise, a reverse trend was observed between nymphal development period and biochemical constituents. These genotypes have emerged as a new source of resistance to BPH which can be used in hybridization programme to breed durable BPH resistant rice varieties.
Brown planthopper (BPH) is one of the destructive insect pests causing significant yield losses in rice. BPH causes direct damage to the rice plants by sucking the sap from phloem, causing hopper burn and transmitting viral diseases like grassy and ragged stunt viruses. Several resistant donors have been identified from time to time, but the new biotypes of the pest arise to defeat the extended use of resistance genes in a single variety. This necessitates the regular identification of new resistant donors along with their nature of inheritance and gene action controlling the resistance. Knowing the inheritance pattern, gene action and number of genes controlling a trait helps the plant breeders to plan the effective breeding approaches for crop improvement. The present investigation was hence carried out to know the inheritance pattern, gene action and number of genes controlling BPH resistance in newly identified sources. The results indicated that the BPH resistance in PHS 29 genotype is under the control of single recessive gene. Whereas, it is controlled by two recessive genes in MRST 3 genotype. This reveals that relatively higher population size will be required to recover desirable segregants in the segregating populations involving MRST 3 genotype as one of the parents as compared to that involving PHS 29 genotype as parent. Since, the resistance in both the cases being recessive in nature, the trait will hence show significant additive effect, indicating that pure line development will be desirable for improvement of such a trait.
Authors:T. Vicheka, S. Yun, A.F. Lindain, M. Sopheareth, I.K. Chung, and K.M. Kim
This study was to determine the gene expression pattern and phenotypic change of Cheongcheong, Nagdong, TN1, and 8 different pedigrees of the CNDH population when WBPH infestation initiated at the reproductive stage of the crop. WBPH infested plants generally showed higher expression level of defense genes compared with the uninfected plants. LOX transcriptional levels in Nagdong and CNDH42-1 did not increase after WBPH feeding at all-time course. Chlorophyll content declined in infested plants compared to their controls, but still CNDH3, CNDH14-2, and CNDH65 were healthier. Heavy and extensive WBPH feeding affected rice yield and grain quality although the infestation started at the reproductive stage.
Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research
Gurr G. M., Liu J., Read D. M. Y., Catindig J. L. A., Cheng J. A., Lan L. P. and Heong K. L. (2011): Parasitoids of Asian rice planthopper (Hemiptera