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High ozone (O3) can cause great damage to plants. However, the effect of high O3 on nitrogen (N) absorption, distribution, and utilization in rice at different growth stages under different planting densities is poorly understood. In the present study, a conventional cultivar (Yangdao 6) and a hybrid cultivar (II You 084) with different planting densities were exposed to an elevated amount of O3 (E-O3; 50% higher than that of the control, C-O3) under a freeair gas concentration enrichment (FACE) system. N absorption, distribution, and utilization of the green leaves, stems, and shoots at tillering, jointing heading, and maturity were investigated. Results showed that E-O3 significantly increased the N content in the shoots of Yangdao 6 by 7.5%, 12.7%, and 19.6%, respectively, at jointing, heading, and maturity. Also, the N content in the shoots of II You 084 increased by 5.4%, 6.5%, and 8.4% at the corresponding growth stage upon E-O3 application. E-O3 significantly decreased N accumulation of II You 084 by 8.3%, 4.9%, 4.7%, and 19.2%, respectively, at tillering, jointing, heading, and maturity. Further, E-O3 had a decreasing effect on the N distribution in green leaves (p ≤ 0.05) of both cultivars, but exerted an increasing effect on that in the stems of both cultivars (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, E-O3 significantly decreased the N use efficiency (NUE) for biomass of the two cultivars in all growth stages. These results revealed that E-O3 could increase the N content in rice plants but decrease the N accumulation and utilization in both cultivars. The effects of E-O3 on N absorption, distribution, and utilization were not affected by planting density.

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Field experiments were conducted during 1998 and 1999 in June-September with rice variety ASD18 at the wetland farm, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India to find out theeffect of N management approaches and planting densities on N accumulation by transplanted rice in a split plot design.The main plot consisted of three plant populations (33, 66 and 100 hills m-2) and the sub-plot treatments of five N management approaches. The results revealed thatthe average N uptake in roots and aboveground biomass progressively increased with growth stages. The mean root and aboveground biomass Nuptake were 26.1 to 130.6 and 6.4 to 17.8 kg ha-1, respectively. The N uptake of grain and straw was higher in theSesbania rostratagreen manuring + 150 kg N treatment, but it was not effective in increasing the grain yield. The mean total N uptake was found to be significantly lower at 33 hills m-2(76.9 kg ha-1) and increased with an increase in planting density (100.9 and 117.2 kg ha-1at 66 and 100 hills m-2density). N application had a significant influence on N uptake and the time course of N uptake in all the SPAD-guided N approaches. A significant regression coefficient was observed between the crop N uptake and grain yield. The relationship between cumulative N uptake at the flowering stage and the grain yield was quadratic at all three densities. The N uptake rate (µN) was maximum during the active tillering to panicle initiation period and declined sharply after that. In general, µNincreased with an increase in planting density and the increase was significant up to the panicle initiation to flowering period.thereafter, the N uptake rate was similar at densities of 66 and 100 hills m-2.

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Waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is grown throughout the world for its specific quality. Fertilization and planting density are two crucial factors that affect waxy wheat yield and photosynthetic capacity. The objectives of the research were to determine the effects of fertilization and planting density on photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and yield components of waxy wheat, including Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, PH, HI, Pn, Gs, Ci, E and WUE using the method of field experiment, in which there were three levels (150, 300, and 450 kg ha−1) of fertilizer application rate and three levels (1.35, 1.8, and 2.25 × 106 plants ha−1) of planting density. The results suggested that photosynthetic characteristics, yield, and yield components had close relationship with fertilization levels and planting density. Under the same plant density, with the increase of fertilization, Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, HI, Pn, Gs, E and WUE increased and then decreased, PH increased, but Ci decreased. Under the same fertilization, with the increase of plant density, Yield, SSR, TGW, GNPP, GWPP, HI increased and then decreased, PH, Pn, Gs and E increased, PH and WUE declined. The results also showed that F2 (300 kg ha−1) and D2 (1.8 × 106 plants ha−1) was a better match in this experiment, which could obtain a higher grain yield 4961.61 kg ha−1. Consequently, this combination of fertilizer application rate and plant densities are useful to get high yield of waxy wheat.

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Field experiments were conducted in June-September 1998 and 1999 with rice variety ASD18 at the wetland farm of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, in Coimbatore, India to examine variations in 'Y' leaf (youngest fully expanded leaf) N concentration as influenced by different planting densities and N management strategies in a split plot design. The main plot consisted of three plant populations (33, 66 and 100 hills m-2) and the sub-plots treatments of five N management approaches. The results revealed that the nitrogen concentration progressively declined with growth, the decline being steep up to 35 days after transplanting, wereafter the values became almost linear up to the flowering stage in all the treatments. The mean 'Y' leaf N was found to be significantly higher at 33 hills m-2 (45.1 g kg-1), while the other two densities were on par (42.9 g kg-1). When N application was based on chlorophyll meter (SPAD) values the leaf N concentration was maintained at a level of 39.2 to 51.9 g kg-1 to produce maximum grain yield. A significant correlation was observed between the chlorophyll meter values and 'Y' leaf N concentrations at various days after transplanting (r values ranged from 0.57* to 0.83**), while the correlation was highly significant during the major physiological growth stages. Though the 'Y' leaf content was significantly higher in the treatment involving Sesbania rostrata green manuring + 150 kg N applied in splits, the grain yield produced was on par in all the N applied treatments. A highly significant correlation was observed between the grain yield and both 'Y' leaf N content and SPAD values during various growth periods.

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Higher plant population and nitrogen management is an adopted approach for improving crop productivity from limited land resources. Moreover, higher plant density and nitrogen regimes may increase the risk of stalk lodging, which is a consequence of complex interplant competition of individual organs. Here, we aimed to investigate the dynamic change in morphology, chemical compositions and lignin promoting enzymes of the second basal inter-nodes altering lodging risk controlled by planting density and nitrogen levels. A field trial was conducted at the Mengcheng research station (33°9′44″N, 116°32′56″E), Huaibei plain, Anhui province, China. A randomized complete block design was adopted, in which four plant densities, i.e., 180, 240, 300, and 360 × 104 ha−1 and four N levels, i.e., 0, 180, 240, and 300 kg ha−1 were studied. The two popular wheat varieties AnNong0711 and YanNong19 were cultivated. Results revealed that the culm lodging resistance (CLRI) index of the second basal internodes was positively and significantly correlated with light interception, lignin and cellulose content. The lignin and cellulose contents were significantly and positive correlated to light interception. The increased planting density and nitrogen levels declined the lignin and its related enzymes activities. The variety AnNong0711 showed more resistive response to lodging compared to YanNong19. Overall our study found that increased planting densities and nitrogen regimes resulted in poor physical strength and enzymatic activity which enhanced lodging risk in wheat varieties. The current study demonstrated that stem bending strength of the basal internode was significantly positive correlated to grains per spike. The thousand grain weight and grain yield had a positive and significant relationship with stem bending strength of the basal internode. The results suggested that the variety YanNong19 produces higher grain yield (9298 kg ha−1) at density 240 × 104 plants ha−1, and 180 kg ha−1 nitrogen, while AnNong0711 produced higher grain yield (10178.86 kg ha−1) at density 240 × 104 plants ha−1 and with 240 kg ha−1 nitrogen. Moreover, this combination of nitrogen and planting density enhanced the grain yield with better lodging resistance.

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density in the cultivar-specific maize production technology.) Növénytermelés , 44 , 261-270. A tőzám szerepe a fajtaspecifikus kukorica-termesztési technológiában. (The role of plant density in the cultivar-specific maize

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Diepenbrock, W., Long, M., Feil, B. (2001): Yield and quality of sunflower as affected by row orientation, row spacing, and plant density. Die Bodenkultur (Austrian J. Agric. Res.) , 52, 55-62. Yield and quality of sunflower as

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Győrffy, B. (1979): Fajta-, növényszám és mutrágyahatás a kukoricatermesztésben. (Effect of variety, plant density and fertiliser in maize production.) Agrártudományi Közlemények , 38 , 309-331. Fajta-, növényszám és

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Roupakias, D.G., Zesopoulou, A., Kazolea, S., Daskalitses, G., Mavromatis, A., Lazaridou, T. 1997. Effectiveness of early generation selection under two plant densities in faba bean ( Vicia faba L.). Euphytica 93 :63

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The yield potential of wheat depends not only on genetic × environmental interactions, but also on various agronomic factors such as sowing date or the seed rate used for sowing. The main aim of this work was to determine possible correlations between the effects of different sowing dates and plant densities on the yield components of a collection of 48 wheat genotypes. Two-way analysis of variance on the data revealed that both sowing date and plant density, as main components, only had a minor effect on the yield component patterns. Correlation analysis, however, indicated that the sowing date had a greater effect on the yield components, while plant density was in closer correlation with the heading time (r = 0.90). The patterns determined for individual yield components at two different sowing dates and plant densities showed significant differences for spike length, spike fertility, grain number in the main spike, number of productive tillers, grain number on side tillers, mean grain number and grain weight. Genotypes that carry the winter (recessive) alleles of genes regulating vernalisation processes (VRN-A1, VRN-B1, VRN-D1) and the sensitive (recessive) alleles of the two genes responsible for photoperiod sensitivity (PPD-B1, PPD-D1) may have better tillering and consequently higher grain yield, though this may depend greatly on the year.

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