In the present study, a radiometric method was applied for element migration determination from food plastic packaging to
simulating solutions and foodstuffs. This method consisted of irradiating plastics with neutrons, its exposure for migration
and radioactivity measurements in the food or food-simulating solutions. The migration was studied for water, juice, soft
drinks, acidic fatty food and dairy product plastic packages. The results indicated Co, Cr and Sb migration to the simulating
solutions and food. However, the contamination of these elements in food from packaging material was lower than the maximum
limit values established by the Brazilian Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) legislation.
Vinylidene chloride copolymers are prominent in the barrier plastic packaging industry. These materials display excellent
barrier to the transport of oxygen (and other small molecules) as well as flavor and aroma molecules. However, they suffer
from a propensity to undergo degradative dehydrochlorination at process temperatures. To scavenge hydrogen chloride formed
and prevent its interaction with the metallic components of process equipment, a passive base is usually included as an additive
prior to processing. The base is most often an inorganic oxide or salt. These may negatively impact the properties of the
polymer, particularly as a film. An organic base that could be covalently incorporated into the copolymer might display better
behavior. Accordingly, a series of copolymers containing low levels of 4-vinylpyridine (0.05–3 mole%) have been prepared,
characterized, and examined by thermogravimetry to assess thermal stability. In all cases, polymers containing 4-vinylpyridine
units are less stable than the polymer containing none of this comonomer. Clearly, the pyridine moiety is a sufficiently strong
base to promote E2 elimination of hydrogen chloride to generate dichlormethylene units in the mainchain from which thermal
degradation may be initiated.
The paper presents results of comparative investigations of packaging materials and packages made by thermoforming of polystyrene ribbon, polypropylene compound ribbon and co-extruded multi-layer ribbon containing polypropylene layer, barrier layer and polypropylene layer. The investigations have established that polypropylene compound packaging has much better characteristics, and particularly the one made of co-extruded multi-layer ribbon. In this way a better protection is provided for the packed content. Polypropylene package ensures the conditions of sterilization at temperatures up to 121 °C.
A neutron activation method has been developed for the analysis of high density polyethylene, low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate and polystyrene. Samples weighing 2–5 g were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 1016 neutrons m–2 s–1 and measured with gamma ray spectrometry for 64 elements. With the method developed here over 50 elements can be detected at concentrations below 1 mg/kg. Correction factors were applied for neutron flux variation and counting geometry.The method was validated using reference material citrus leaves (NIST) for Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Sr and I, and a suite of in house standards doped with Al, Cr, Co, Mg, Zn and Sb confirmed repeatability of the method. The method was used to measure inorganic contaminants in the raw polymers and retail samples of plastic packaging used in contact with food.
Recycling of wastepaper has been shown to increase the concentration of metals in the product. Although it is generally assumed that there is no risk of migration of chemical contaminants from recycled paper and board into food, the UK Food Standards Agency has identified limited evidence of such migration. Therefore, it is important to carry out research to establish the concentration of metals in recycled paper and board in contact with food. A previous study at Imperial College had resulted in the development of a neutron activation analysis method to determine trace metals in plastic packaging. This paper describes an initial study to establish whether the same methodology could be applied to paper and board and to carry out a preliminary investigation into a small range of recycled paper and board products. The study was made on 22 elements in 17 products including pizza boxes, fries boxes, kitchen towel, table napkins, greaseproof paper, tea bags and cake cases. This work has shown elevated levels of some elements including barium (69 mg/kg in pizza bases) and chromium (5 mg/kg in napkins, 50 mg/kg in greaseproof paper, 2 mg/kg in cake cases, 90 mg/kg in baking parchment, 5 mg/kg in fries boxes and 5 mg/kg in pizza bases).
Authors:Csongor Bajnóczki, Zoltán Illés, and Péter Szendrő
Company B specializes in the manufacture of plasticpackaging for products, primarily cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, household chemicals, and food products. The company, as well as the whole plasticpackage manufacturing market, has gone through multiple ups
, cardboard, foil, cloth, textiles, plasticpackaging, tape, cables, cleaning, clothes confiscated by customs. This waste may be contaminated with oil, grease, lubricants, paints, etc. Also used:, plastics, oil filters, out-dated food, plasticpackaging
Authors:Nikoletta Kaszás, Krisztina Keller, and Zoltán Birkner
emissions ( Lenzen et al. 2018 );
the industry uses a large number of goods, products, which often infer delivery and plasticpackaging (based on the Eunomia Research & Consulting, over 80 per cent of the