This paper discusses the use of science indicators by public policy analysts with limited time and resources. Using the example of innovation policy, it describes what kind of policy relevant propositions can be extracted from science indicators and shows the inherent limits of indicators as instruments for policy making. It shows how science indicators can and must be combined with other sources to construct alternative strategies for decision making. It closes with a discussion of the use of science indicators in constructing consistent lines of argument and reasoning for making policy and for checking past policy.
The relation between bibliometrics and science policy remains underdeveloped. Relevance of new methods to produce indicators
is easily claimed, but often without real insight in the policy processes. Drawing on experiences with the use of S&T indicators
in science policy in the Netherlands and on principal-agent theory, I develop an analytical perspective which enbles to assess
the role of S&T indicators in science policy. It is argue that the use of S&T indicators can only be understood well if one
takes the socio-political context with its specific dynamics and rationalities into account.
There is a considerable discrepancy between official rhetoric and reality in the Hungarian higher education system. Based on a series of personal interviews conducted with the actors of Hungarian higher education, this article offers an analysis of the positions and strategies of the key players. Using the Matrix of Alliances and Conflicts: Tactics, Objectives and Recommendations (MACTOR) method, the actors of the higher education system are analysed in terms of direct and indirect reciprocal influences, and their positions with regard to a generic set of possible objectives. It is argued that there is an urgent need for concentrating resources and for re-defining the higher education strategy based on the long-term demands of a globalising world.
Conceptual and data problems make the selection of science and technology indicators difficult. It has also proven hard to link measures of scientific and technological activity with economic development. In this paper, statistically significant results are obtained by regressing one science and technology output indicator: patents granted to residents, with R & D expenditures and the stock of potential scientists and engineers. Statistically significant results are also obtained by regressing the same dependent variable onto population size and income per capita. The econometrically established patterns tend to corroborate previously formulated hypotheses and could be used, it is suggested, for policy analysis and projections.
Authors:Jonas Lundberg, Anette Fransson, Mats Brommels, John Sk?r and Inger Lundkvist
This study demonstrates that the choice of search strategy for article identification has an impact on evaluation and policy
analysis of research areas. We have assessed the scientific production in two areas at one research institution during a ten-year
period. We explore the recall and precision of three article identification strategies: journal classifications, keywords
and authors. Our results show that the different search strategies have varying recall (0.38-1.00) and precision (0.50-1.00).
In conclusion, uncritical analysis based on rudimentary article identification strategies may lead to misinterpretation of
the development of research areas, and thus provide incorrect data for decision-making.
Elite theory up to now has been largely neglected within foreign policy analysis. This paper attempts to apply the concepts of elite theory on European foreign policy-making. Its focus is on elite consensus and competition, not least because such cleavages are particularly evident in this arena, where Member States’ decision-makers compete with each other and with the various Brussels institutions, while at the same time speaking the language of cohesion and solidarity. Forms of significant scrutiny for common European diplomacy are less visible. There is a political and informational gap between the national parliamentary processes and the increasingly complex processes of foreign policy coordination. Thus when a crisis arises, national politics and institutions move into the vacant space.
Bibliometric analysis is combined with a psychometric analysis of the perceptions which researchers in a community of Dutch fresh-water ecologists have of their professional environment. The results of these two types of analysis converge and can be understood by an exploration of the institutional and intellectual development of the community and the intellectual continuities in the careers of the researchers involved. International developments appear to be taken up in ways which reflect the particular socio-cognitive organization of the national subfield. The article claims that such national subfields of science constitute a strategic research site for social studies of science which is also directly relevant for science policy analysis. It pleads for the employment of a combination of methods in the synchronic and diachronic analysis of the structures of such subfields.
In this article, the behaviors of countries in scientific production activities are investigated using an asymmetrical matrix system to analyze data collected from theScience Citation Index. Examination of international collaboration, intercountry relationships, and domestic scientific output patterns structured by 98 countries in eight principal fields of science reveal diverse aspects of country behaviors. Three asymmetrical matrixes are established and the multidimentional Minimum Spanning Tree technique is applied to classify, visualize and determine the distinctive characteristics of country profiles. Investigations are conducted at both a macro (country behavior) and a micro (particular city behavior) level in order to demonstrate the applicability of the methodology and to obtain global observations of country behaviors. It is argued that these methods contribute to reveal traditions and policies of countries, universities and research organizations as well as that of the international network of scientific exchange. Further usage of these methodologies is advocated for policy analysis.
Authors:J. Law, S. Bauin, J. Courtial and J. Whittaker
This paper describes recent developments in the co-word method and illustrates, for the case of acid rain research, the way in which the method can be used to detect (a) the themes of research to be found in a given area of science, (b) the relationships between those themes, (c) the extent to which they are central to the area in question and (d) the degree to which they are internally structured. It is also suggested that the method may be used to draw comparative research profiles for different countries. Though the data used are only preliminiary, it is argued that the method has now been developed to the point where its results are both quite robust and easily assimilable. It is, accordingly, now an appropriate tool for policy analysis.