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technology on democracy should clearly identify what aspect of democracy he or she intends to address. For instance, the question of who has the opportunity to be heard at all is a question of political participation, whereas the question of whether political

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During the last few years around a dozen boycotts have been called in Hungary; there are several ecologically and socially aware food-communities directly linking consumers and producers; at the end of 2006 a Fair Trade shop opened in Budapest, and there are product campaigns which accentuate various patriotic themes. All of these initiatives signal the emergence of new attitudes and values, a new type of behavior, that of ethical consumption . Ethical consumption, new kinds of consumer needs are influencing market culture through the creation of various market-niches (see corporate social responsibility); furthermore, the wide-scale spread of ethical consumption can even lead to the transformation of market functions. The modern market is going from a mainly economic space to an area of moral action, a tool of regulation and social participation. As a social movement ethical consumerism can effect political culture and play an important role in public policy aiming towards sustainable development. According to West-European literature as well as to concrete experience ethical consumerism is more and more playing this role, the local appearance of the movement beckons the question: what sort of values and institutions characterize this new consumer culture, and which of these can we encounter in Hungary? The first part of this study deals with the phenomena of ethical consumption: it gives an overview of the literature, explicating the main research themes, and introducing its distinctive, most often examined forms of action. In the second part of the study, out of the interpretational possibilities, I look at ethical consumption as political consumption, as a form of social governance, examining its relevance as a way of public participation. I try to find an answer to the question whether the spread of ethical consumption should be imagined at the demise of classical political institutions, or as complementary to them, and which ethical issues are most likely to mobilize the public. The study is primarily based on data describing Hungarian political participatory culture, as well as an attitude survey of a representative sample. At the end of the study I will briefly refer to the possible causes of differences in ethical consumption attitudes and behaviors.

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In 1933, Hungary passed landmark legislation that allowed the establishment of minority self-governments for all recognized minority groups within Hungary. Written to protect minority culture and provide a forum for minority interests, this legislation has arguably had the most profound implications for the Roma/Gypsy minority in Hungary. The Roma, comprising approximately 5 per cent of the total population, from not only the largest minority group, but also have historically remained the most politically and socio-economically marginalized. Can this new institution enhance the possibility that the Roma may freely preserve their cultural heritage and traditions while becoming full members of Hungarian society, with equal dignity and social opportunity? We use data from a nation-wide survey of Roma leaders, as well as interviews and ethnographic information from local case studies to determine the activities of Roma local minority self-governments, and how these activities affect Roma communities and local inter-ethnic relations. We find that while the system was created to protect and preserve minority cultural autonomy, Roma self-governments are instead predominantly acting as local social lobbies, motivated by their community's pressing social needs currently unmet by the local and state authorities. This leads to the conflation of the ethnic and social dimensions of local problems, strengthening social exclusion and reinforcing the perception that Roma impoverishment is a 'natural' condition.

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Reclaiming the streets — Redefining democracy

The politics of the critical mass bicycle movement in Budapest

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Éva Udvarhelyi

The Critical Mass bicycle movement, whose main aim is to reclaim cyclists’ right to use city streets freely, safely and proudly, is arguably the single most powerful grassroots movement that has emerged in Hungary since the 1989 change of regimes. While Critical Mass is a critique of today’s dominant motorized transportation practices as well as a celebration of alternative modes of transportation, it is not only about the environment. The Budapest Critical Mass can be read as the spatialized enactment of a direct and embodied form of democratic participation that goes beyond and at the same time transforms representative democracy. In the context of growing political apathy and widespread disillusionment with the formal public sphere in post-socialist Hungary, Critical Mass has emerged as a unique and powerful channel of citizen participation by forging a new kind of relationship between citizens, civil society and the state.

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, ‘ Political Rights of Refugees ’ ( 2003 ) 4 Legal and Protection Policy Research Series <http://www.unhcr.org/3fe84e284.pdf> accessed 3 July 2017. Migrant Integration Policy Index , Political Participation, Policy

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. Bauböck , R. , ‘ Stakeholder Citizenship and Transnational Political Participation: A Normative Evaluation Of External Voting ’ ( 2007 ) 5 Fordham Law Review 2413 – 2414

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Collaboration Pattern of University-Industry-Government in China based on Patent Analysis.” Webometrics In the Webometrics category, we start with the study entitled, “Measuring Twitter-Based Political Participation and

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Határon túli magyar oktatási támogatások 2010 és 2022 között

Hungarian Educational Cross-border Support System between 2010–2022

Educatio
Authors:
Kinga Magdolna Mandel
and
Tünde Morvai

://bgazrt.hu/nemzetpolitikai-kutatointezet/ [Letöltve: 2021. 12. 06.] 19 Palermo, F. & Woelk, J. (2003) No representation without recognition: The right to political participation of (National) minorities. Journal of European Integration, Vol. 25. No. 3. pp

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Ozbudun, O. (1976): Social Change and Political Participation in Turkey . Princeton: Princeton University Press. Ozbudun O. Social Change and Political

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: what are the institutional consequences of political participation? Ongoing societal tensions are now emerging on digital platforms, making it particularly difficult for scholars in these environments as their institutions increasingly invest in

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