The aim of this study was to obtain prevalence estimates about the most important enteropathogenic bacteria:
Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Brachyspira pilosicoli, Salmonella enterica
A and C in Hungarian farrow-to-finish pig herds. A total of 31 herds were selected, from where six pooled faecal samples, each containing three individual rectal faecal samples were collected from fattening pigs of 5–6 months of age. All 186 samples were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of the pathogens mentioned above.
was found in 29 herds (93.55%) and in 108 samples (58.06%);
in 14 herds (45.16%) and in 23 samples (12.37%);
in 19 herds (61.29%) and in 53 samples (28.49%);
in 17 herds (54.83%) and in 40 samples (21.50%). We detected the presence of
A in 19 herds (61.29%) and in 46 samples (24.73%), while
C was found in 8 herds (25.81%) and in 11 samples (5.91%). All examined herds were infected with one or more of these agents. Herds with diarrhoea in the mid-to late finishing phase had almost 10 times higher prevalence of
than herds without such a history.
This study was designed to determine the presence and the prevalence of
infection in sheep and cattle in the Middle and Eastern Black Sea Regions of Turkey in which the potential vector,
, is widespread. Blood samples were collected from 720 sheep and 720 cattle from 6 provinces of the region, and used for detecting antibodies to
by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and specific nucleic acids by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Blood smears were also prepared and examined microscopically for the presence of
-like organisms in polymorphonuclear cells. Of the animals examined, antibodies were detected in 110 (15.27%) cattle and 107 (14.86%) sheep and
-like organisms were detected in the blood of 73 (10.13%) cattle and 71 (9.86%) sheep. In addition, specific DNA was detected in the blood of 27 (14.75%) cattle and 22 (12.35%) sheep. The results obtained constitute the first molecular and serological evidence of
infection in sheep and cattle in the Black Sea Region of Turkey.
Epidemiological, pathological, serological and virological investigations are reported on turkey haemorrhagic enteritis virus (THEV) infection in Hungarian turkey flocks. The pathogenesis of infection in experimentally infected turkeys and chickens, as well as the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing method for epidemiological investigation and for the differentiation of vaccine and field strains of THEV was also studied. Since the first recognition of the disease in Hungary in the late 1970s, until recently the disease has been diagnosed sporadically in its mild form. In the last few years (2000–2005), however, the number of outbreaks and the severity of the disease increased (9–23 affected flocks/year). Most of the outbreaks occurred at the age of 6 to 8 weeks and was complicated with
infection. The antibody levels to THEV in turkey flocks gradually declined till 5–7 weeks of age, and then they increased sharply due to natural infection with THEV. The immune response to vaccination (at 5 weeks of age) showed no significant antibody level increase one week postvaccination, but four weeks later the antibody level reached high values and then remained at this high level. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test to detect turkey adenovirus A (TAdV-A) antigen and PCR methods for THEV-specific DNA gave similarly positive results if spleens with pathognomonic lesions were tested; however, PCR proved to be more sensitive in cases with less characteristic pathological lesions. Nucleotide sequence alignment of PCR products amplified from Hungarian field strains and the Domermuth vaccine strain and that of the published THEV hexon sequences in GenBank database revealed slight differences between the sequences.
, Turki Y , Daly I , Rjab AB , Hassen A , Maher G : Molecular identification and assessment of genetic diversity of fluorescent Pseudomonads based on different polymerasechainreaction (PCR) methods . Afr J
) for the detection of C. difficile GDH and toxins A/B in stool samples were used according to the manufacturer's instructions.
PolymeraseChainReaction (PCR) Assay
Samples with discordant EIA results were tested by
was extracted by GeNet Bio company (Korea, Cat. no. K-3000) and used as a template for polymerasechainreaction (PCR). The quinolone resistance encoding genes, including qepA , aac(6′)-Ib-cr , acrA , and acrB genes were amplified for all E. coli
borreliosis in Austria with a rate of positive serology in the population between 30–60%. Polymerasechainreaction (PCR) confirmation for all 6 cases was performed independently in 2 different laboratories located in Austria and the US. The archived
:20,000 Chlamydia sp. monoclonal, mouse Progen, Heidelberg, Germany 1:100 Toxoplasma gondii polyclonal, rabbit NeoMarkers, Fremont, CA, USA 1:1,000 Polymerasechainreaction (PCR) In the case of Mycoplasma , previous investigations ( Wöhrer et al., 2016