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The question of using synonyms in translating the Qur’an is a thorny issue that led to both different interpretations and different translations of the holy text. No matter how accurate or professional a translator’s attempts have been, Qur’anic translations have always been fraught with inaccuracies and the skewing of sensitive theological, cultural and historical connotations owing to the peculiar mechanism of stress, semantico-syntactic ambiguity, prosodic and acoustic features, the mesh of special rhetorical texture and culture-bound references. Consequently, in most of the English interpretations of the Qur’an, cases of non-equivalence and untranslatability are frequent with plenty of scope for ambiguities, obscurities and fuzzy boundaries. The trend has been to accept exegetical translation based on commentary and explanation of the Qur’anic discourse. Since there is no uniform book of exegesis, translations are considered to be glosses or approximates for non-Arabic speaking Muslims.This study is mainly concerned with assessing the criteria and strategies used by different Qur’an translators in selecting synonyms to render Qur’anic polysemous words. The linguistic-cultural context of the original polysemous source text (ST) word will be analysed and compared with its target text (TT) near-synonyms. The study argues that in translating religious texts where synonyms are usually used to convey implicated meanings of ST polysemous words and where we seek to have the same effect on the target language (TL) receiver as that of the original, the use of functional ideational equivalence is given primacy over formal equivalence.

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: “Legal terminology is characterized by polysemy. This means that, even within a single legal culture, the same term may express several concepts depending on the context in which it is used. Extremely important in legal language, the phenomenon of

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Exploring the meaning and productivity of a polysemous prefix

The case of the Modern Greek prepositional prefix para-

Acta Linguistica Hungarica
Authors: Angeliki Efthymiou, Georgia Fragaki, and Angelos Markos

. 2015 . Exploring the polysemy of the Modern Greek prefix iper-. Morphology (Online First) . DOI 10.1007/s11525-015-9269-9. Fista, Evangelia . 2007 . Μέθοδος αυτόματης

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On the basis of French, Hungarian, English, German and Russian corpora of anti-proverbs (deliberate proverb innovations, also known as alterations, mutations, parodies, transformations, variations, wisecracks, and fractured proverbs), we examine word play based on polysemy, homonymy, and homophony. After a survey of the proverbs most frequently used for these types of alteration, this study investigates anti-proverbs linked to the theme of sexuality. Finally, we explore the use of proper nouns in proverb transformations based on polysemy, homonymy, and homophony.

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О «ковидно-коронавирусных» процессах в русском языке 2020 года

An Overview of the Processes and Innovations in Russian Caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic in 2020

Studia Slavica
Authors: Е. С. Громенко, А. С. Павлова, and М. Н. Приёмышева

В статье освещаются процессы в лексико-семантической системе русского языка, происходящие в период начала пандемии коронавирусной инфекции COVID-19 в 2020 году. Цель статьи – дать общую характеристику и первую оценку явлений и процессов, протекающих в период активного пополнения словарного состава новыми узуальными и окказиональными единицами.

В русском языке в марте–июне 2020 г. происходят очень интенсивные изменения: язык попол-нился огромным количеством новых слов и понятий, ряд слов и словосочетаний получили новые значения, некоторые из них расширили сферу функционирования – перешли из специальной ме-дицинской, социальной сферы в общее употребление. Русский язык оказался включен в процесс интенсивной языковой игры и языкового творчества. Ключевыми словами эпохи стали слова ковид, коронавирус и корона, так как они оказались не только словами-символами этого исторического периода, но и продуктивными основами для огромного количества узуальных и окказиональных новообразований.

Материалами статьи стала новая лексика СМИ и интернета, собранная авторами статьи – сотруд-никами группы академических «Словарей новых слов» – и сверенная с данными крупного медий-ного банка «Интегрум», включающего материалы более 30 000 наименований изданий массмедиа, записи теле- и радиопрограмм.

В процессе исследования был рассмотрен ряд новых слов и сочетаний, вошедших в русский язык в период распространения коронавирусной инфекции, случаи формирования новой полисемии у слов ковид, ковидный, корона и прилагательных, от них образованных, кратко проанализированы сложные слова с основами ковид- и корона-, в том числе новации, образованные путем контамина-ции, рассмотрены очевидные случаи системной связи между новыми словами (синонимия, антони-мия, омонимия).

Помимо широкого обзора нового языкового материала, попыток его анализа и некоторых науч-ных обобщений, одним из важных выводов статьи является системный характер целого ряда лекси-ческих изменений, ставших результатом интенсивного и стихийного процесса в русском словообра-зовании и лексико-семантической системе.

The paper deals with the lexical-semantic processes the Russian language has experienced during the first half of the year 2020 throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the paper is to give a general characterization and evaluation of the phenomena and processes occurring at the period of time during which the language vocabulary gets rapidly enriched with both usual neologisms and occasionalisms.

From March to June 2020, the Russian language has been subject to intense changes: a vast number of new words and notions have entered the language, a certain number of lexical units and collocations have acquired new meanings, and some of them have widened the scope of functioning: e.g. a transition of units that formerly used to belong to medical terminology or to the sphere of social life into the words of common use can be observed. The Russian language has joined the process of continuous language game and linguistic creativity. COVID, coronavirus, and corona have become the keywords of the current era as they have not only turned out to be the symbols of a certain historical period but also have served as productive stems for the formation of an enormous number of regular and occasional lexical innovations.

The data presented in the paper are based on the lexical innovations published in the mass media and the Internet sources. The new lexical units were collected by the authors, who are members of the group of academic “Dictionaries of neologisms”, and collated with the large-scale mass media database “ Integrum ”, which comprises the data bank of over 30,000 mass media editions as well as records of television and radio programs.

In the course of research, the following matters are examined: a number of new words and collocations which entered the language during the COVID-19 spread, the cases of forming new polysemy that the words covid, corona, and the adjectives derived from them have developed, a brief analysis of compounds with the first-component stems covid- and corona- (including the innovations that are formed by means of blending), and the investigation of obvious cases that manifest regular lexical relations (synonymy, antonymy, and homonymy) among the above-mentioned neologisms.

In addition to the broad review of the neological language data, its analysis, and some scientific generalizations, one of the most important conclusions the paper arrives at is the regular character of a variety of lexical changes which have been caused by an intense and spontaneous process observed in the Russian word formation and lexical-semantic system.

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Among a number of urgent questions waiting for systematic solutions in lexical semantics there is a question of the relation between the etymology of words and the evolution of different meanings of a word. The study of semantic change can be based on the study of word usage in context. In this paper, the author tries to demonstrate by the example of three Russian words (дерзить, дерзать, and дерзкий are words with different but related senses) what processes go on during the actualization of words in discourse. The history of the usage of this small lexical group is explored, starting from 19th-century Russian literature to modern journalism. The analysis is conducted on the basis of data found in the Russian National Corpus (www.ruscorpora.ru). The author shares the opinion that the various senses of a polysemous word have a central origin.

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Шаткий трон и зыбкое стекло

Семантика прилагательных сквозь призму поэзии

Studia Slavica
Author: Олег Федосов

This paper is devoted to the corpus-based study of Russian adjectives шаткий ‘wobbly, unstable, shaky’ and зыбкий ‘unsteady, shaky’ in the context of Russian poetry. The comprehensive research shows that the similarity of these lexemes has only surface features. The symmetry of the two adjectives is discussed: they are synonymous practically in all the meanings they have but this semantic area has a lot of differences. The following differences are revealed: the adjective шаткий is used in its direct meaning more frequently than зыбкий, while the adjective зыбкий is used more frequently in metaphoric contexts. It is necessary to study how the hidden component of the meaning takes place in the “naive mind”.

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This article explores the symbiotic relationship between nature and poetry, which is in many ways pivotal for Vergil’s Arcadia, as an imaginary construct. Interdependence of the ideal landscape and the poetic creativity finds an especially refined and polysemic expression in the fagus, which functions in the Eclogues simultaneously as a literary image, a metaphor, and a symbol. It is also strongly reminiscent of the proto-idyllic segment of Plato’s Phaedrus (230b-e), describing a beautiful πλάτανος that turns out to be the source of anagogic inspiration. Based on this analogy, a comparative reading of Plato’s dialogue and Vergil’s idyllic poems is offered, and the ascensus motive of Eclogue 5 reveals the Platonic echoes. The anagogic aspect of Arcadia is examined from an intertextual and interdisciplinary point of view, hopefully contributing to seize the polyphonic complexity of Vergil’s poetics.

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Studia Slavica
Author: ОКСАНА ЗЕЛІНСЬКА

Research devoted to childhood as a social-cultural phenomenon has become more active in present-day science. Scientists study some peculiarities of the perception of child and childhood by society in different historical epochs, try to fix childhood limits and to define age periods within child age, and make a conclusion that in many cases, periods of man's life are correlated with social roles of people rather than with biological age, and they were formed under the influence of social institutes developing together with the evolution of society.

The present paper analyzes lexical means used in written records of the Ukrainian language in the 16th-18th centuries to denote child age and express the concept of an age differentiation of childhood. The written records of the Ukrainian language of different genres in the mentioned period were the sources of the research: e.g. business language records, P. Berynda's dictionary, religious texts, sermons, and poetic works.

Lexical units expressing child age to denote childhood as an age period of man's life and general names originating from colloquial language and taken from Church Slavonic were used to denote children. Written sources confirm an active use of hypocoristic forms.

The lack of a clear classification of childhood into separate age periods is seen in the system of children's names. Most of the general names denoting children did not represent an age gradation of childhood and only some words were special names of a child expressing an age characteristic: those were the names of a newly-born child and a baby.

Some adjectives combination with nouns to denote children indicated a relative age characteristic (little, minor) but the contexts in which phrases with the adjective little were used did not give a reason to distinguish between a little child and a young man.

In several sources, a seven-year period was classified as a special stage in a child's life, first of all, due to religious practice. According to Christian tradition, a child was considered to have no sins until the age of 7 since he or she cannot distinguish between good and bad. After that, he or she had to shrive. In secular practice, the age of 7 became the time when a child would be sent to an educational institution. The texts of pedagogical orientation prove the synonymy of common names denoting children with special names of the individuals who get education.

A differentiation according to an age characteristic “adulthood” vs. “minority” can be seen clearly, which is explained by the legal status of an adult and, correspondingly, is expressed by the corresponding lexical denotations. The vocabulary denoting this age period is mostly represented by sources written in business language.

One can see that lexical semantics, with help of which child age is marked in records of the Ukrainian language in the 16th-18th centuries, gives a general concept of childhood common for Ukrainian and European social communities of that time.

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This article examines the organisation of the Uriyiyal , which is the 8th chapter inside the 2nd book of the Tolkāppiyam , the most ancient Tamil grammatical work preserved. That chapter, because it provides (approximate) synonyms for 120 “unfrequent words”, many of them polysemic, represents the earliest lexicographical attempt in Tamil. Those 120 words all belong to the category of uriccol , a residual lexical category, examined by the Tolkāppiyam once the nouns (peyarccol) , the verbs (viṉaiccol) and the particles (iṭaiccol) have been dealt with in earlier chapters. The final section of the article examines the posterity of the Uriyiyal , which becomes a marginal section in grammatical literature, but finds its full development in the different scholarly landscape which is created with the composition of thesauri such as the Tivākaram and its successors.

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