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Yakovlev, I. A. (1999): Population structure of pedunculate oak in the Middle Volga Region. - Rus. J. Ecol. 30 (3): 159-165. Population structure of pedunculate oak in the Middle Volga Region Rus. J

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: L. Brbaklić, D. Trkulja, A. Kondić-Špika, S. Mikić, M. Tomičić and B. Kobiljski

Chen, X., Min, D., Yasir, T.A., Hu, Y.G. 2012. Genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in elite Chinese winter wheat investigated with SSR markers. PLoS one 7 (9):e44510. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone 0044510

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Falush , D. , Stephens , M. and Pritchard , J. K. ( 2007 ): Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data: dominant markers and null alleles . — Mol. Ecol. Notes 7 : 574 – 578 . https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01758.x

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additive genetic covariance of relatives and population structure. Genetics 177 : 1889–1913. Ortiz R. Association analysis of historical bread wheat germplasm using additive genetic

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A barley mapping population consisting of 96 doubled haploid lines of anther culture origin was developed from the varieties Dicktoo and Kompolti Korai, which represent diverse types with respect to geographical origin and ecological adaptation. Several molecular marker techniques were used in mapping: among the markers with known chromosome location, RFLP, STS and SSR markers were applied to identify linkage groups and for comparative mapping, while RAPD and AFLP markers, which have random binding but provide useful information on polymorphism, were employed to fill in the linkage groups with markers. A total of 496 markers were tested in the DH population, 246 of which were included in the linkage map after eliminating markers that were completely linked with each other. The ratio of markers with known chromosome location to random markers in the 1107 cM map was one to three, and the mean recombination distance between the markers was 4.5 cM. Application of various marker methods and the effect of the population structure on the development of marker linkage maps are discussed.

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Falush , D. , Stephens , M. and Pritchard , J. K. ( 2007 ): Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data: dominant markers and null alleles. – Mol. Ecol. Notes 7 ( 4 ): 574 – 578 . https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471

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Theoretical ecologists have observed chaotic behavior in population models for decades. However, in the past few years, several studies indicate that complex dynamics, including chaos, become less probable in biologically more sophisticated models. For example, the inclusion of either sexual reproduction, population structure or dispersal generally increases stability. These results can explain the difference between the dynamical complexity of most theoretical models and the relative stability found within real time series.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: Sh. Almerekova, Zs. Lisztes-Szabó, N. Mukhitdinov, M. Kurmanbayeva, K. Abidkulova and G. Sramkó

population structure of the endangered Chascolytrum bulbosum (Poaceae, Poeae) using AFLP markers . – Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 68 : 236 – 242 . Doležel , J. , Greilhuber , J. and Suda , J

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Gábor Görcsös, László Irinyi, László Radócz, Gábor Tarcali and Erzsébet Sándor

. Milgroom , M. G. , Sotirovski , K. , Spica , D. , Davis , J. E. , Brewer , M. T. , Milev , M. , Cortesi , P. : Clonal population structure of the chestnut blight fungus in expanding ranges in southeastern Europe . Mol Ecol 17 , 4446 – 4458

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Beáta Tóth, János Varga, Ágnes Szabó-Hevér, Szabolcs Lehoczki-Krsjak and Ákos Mesterházy

Fusarium head blight caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum is the most important disease of wheat in Central Europe. While F. graminearum is homothallic, no sexual cycle has been observed in F. culmorum . Knowledge regarding the species distribution and population structure of these pathogens is important to estimate their significance for breeding. There are two fundamental means by which fungi and other organisms transmit genes to the next generation: through clonal reproduction or by sexual recombination. To clarify the population structures of F. culmorum and F. graminearum in Central Europe, RAPD and IGS-RFLP data sets of the isolates were subjected to both the index of association tests and tree length tests. Our data indicate that the world-wide F. graminearum and F. culmorum populations have recombining structures, while both the Hungarian F. culmorum and F. graminearum populations reproduce clonally. The frequent occurrence of F. graminearum perithecia on corn residues indicates that this species undergoes a sexual cycle. Both mating type genes have been identified in each examined F. graminearum isolate, while the heterothallic distribution of mating type genes in F. culmorum indicates that this species lost its sexual cycle relatively recently.

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