Authors:Lisa Dillon, Nicole Nowak, Kraig Shattuck, Glenn Weisfeld, Carol Weisfeld, E. Imamoğlu, Marina Butovskaya and Shen Jiliang
In this post hoc analysis of mate retention behavior, over 3000 married couples from five cultures completed the Marriage and Relationship Questionnaire (MARQ). The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) was used to test relationships for selected variables. For all countries and both sexes, the spouse being attracted to other people was linked to worry about spousal infidelity. For all cases except the Russians, being attracted to one’s spouse was related to less worry by the spouse about infidelity. In all cases, one’s being attractive was associated with spousal feelings of possessiveness. Having a spouse who went out without them was related to infidelity worries for wives in all groups and husbands in three groups. Feelings of possessiveness were related to wanting to touch the spouse in most groups, and husbands reported more such desire in all groups. Husbands who sought sex outside of marriage worried about reciprocal spousal infidelity in all cultures, as did wives in most cultures. Overall, the data suggest that attractiveness and attraction shape mate retention emotions and behavior in similar ways across cultures.
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This paper deals with two ways of expressing possessive relationships, their morphological make-up and the possible circumstances of their emergence. One of these is the habitive construction (`X has Y'), whereas the other is the attributive possessive construction (`X's Y, the Y of X'). The former is a clause, whereas the latter is a phrase. It will be argued that both types of constructions may have emerged in the Uralic languages without the contribution of any foreign influence, but as far as the retention of the latter is concerned, foreign influence may have had a role in it in Uralic languages that were engaged in intensive Uralic--Turkic linguistic contacts.
In this paper we discuss Slovenian ditransitive sentences with respect to the two possible word orders of the objects found with neutral intonation, DAT≫ACC and ACC≫DAT. We follow the idea in the Gračanin-Yuksek (2006) paper on Croatian that these two word orders instantiate different structures. In Slovenian, the DAT≫ACC order has an applicative structure (either high or low), while the ACC≫DAT is a prepositional dative construction. The applicative analysis provides a novel argument for this type of analysis. Other supporting arguments examined are scope properties, binding of possessives, the possibility of the causative reading, non-contrastive focus and heavy NP shift, and properties of idioms.
Distinctive vowel length has been only recently re-introduced into the Romani varieties that have been in intimate contact with the various languages of Europe exhibiting vowel quantity. This article describes the process of analogical extension that accounts for certain intra-dialectal variation of vowel length found within the South Central Romani dialect group. The emergence of vowel length by means of this process is demonstrated by the example of the possessive pronouns and the remoteness suffix of Vend Romani, a variety spoken in Western Hungary. This analysis also discusses the phonological and semantic constraints of the examined instances of analogical change.
Mating rivalry is not only limited to one's ingroup, but also outgroup members can be perceived as potential romantic competitors. In the present research, intergroup intrasexual competition (IIC) is defined as the extent to which individuals react negatively towards potential outgroup same-sex members in the context of mating competition. The authors present a scale developed to assess individual variation in IIC. The scale was administered to five student samples: 78 Dutch, 396 Dutch, 105 German, 306 Latvian and 96 Russian. Through a factor analysis, a long version of the scale was reduced to a 12-item version. A moderate test-retest correlation was established. IIC correlated positively with intrasexual competition, social dominance orientation, possessive jealousy and perceived vulnerability to disease, serving as indicators of convergent validity. As predicted, men scored overall higher than women on the IIC scale, but not in the samples where the participants came from a national minority group (Germans in the Netherlands and Russians in Latvia). Latvian male participants showed the highest level of IIC, followed by the Russians, the Dutch and the Germans.