Authors:Oreva Ogbor, Abraham Ajayi, Andreas E. Zautner and Stella I. Smith
Campylobacter [ 5 , 6 ]. Campylobacter infections have been associated with the consumption of improperly cooked and cross-contaminated or inadequately processed foods, including poultry, beef, shellfish, unpasteurized milk, vegetables, and fruits [ 7
Authors:Boglárka Sellyei, Zsuzsanna Varga, Katalin Szentesi-Samu, Éva Kaszanyitzky and Tibor Magyar
causes infectious diseases in a wide range of animal species. Antimicrobial therapy is still an effective tool for treatment. Generally,
isolates are susceptible to most of the widely used commercial antimicrobial agents but their excessive and unjustified use accelerates the emergence of resistant strains. We defined the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of 56
strains isolated from poultry (20) and swine [16
toxin (PMT) positive and 20 PMT negative] to 16 widely applied antibiotics (apramycin, cefquinome, chloramphenicol, colistin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, neomycin, oxolinic acid, penicillin, trimethoprim potentiated sulphamethoxazole, sulphonamide compounds, tetracycline, tulathromycin) by the disk diffusion method. The majority of the strains was susceptible to most of the antimicrobial agents tested. However, the resistance to sulphonamides, tetracyclines, first-generation quinolones and aminoglycosides was remarkable, and thus the use of these compounds for the treatment of infection caused by
is not recommended. On the other hand, the antimicrobial activity of the classical penicillin, the newer macrolide (tulathromycin), the third-generation fluoroquinolone (enrofloxacin) and the fourth-generation cephalosporin (cefquinome) proved to be satisfactory against this bacterium.
Authors:Annamária Szmolka, Éva Kaszanyitzky and B. Nagy
The goal of this study was to improve the diagnostic applicability of genus- and serovar- (S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium) specific PCR systems in screening faecal and caecal samples of poultry, poultry feed and poultrymeat for Salmonella, by keeping the opportunity to obtain Salmonella cultures from positive samples. Peptone broth pre-enrichment cultures of the samples were tested by PCR. In faecal and caecal samples from broiler chicks a strong inhibitory action was frequently observed. This could be reduced markedly by the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) acting as amplification facilitator. The results of testing pre-enrichment cultures from artificially contaminated faecal, poultry feed and poultrymeat samples (using S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Hadar as contaminants) suggest that the sensitivity of the above systems is 101-102 CFU g-1 sample. The testing of 95 caecal samples from slaughtered chicks resulted in 49% culture-positive and 76% PCR-positive samples. The suitability of a generic real-time PCR for testing faecal samples of poultry was also studied. Its detection limit for these samples was found to be lower than that of the diagnostic PCR system. Both methods reduced the time required for Salmonella detection to 24-30 h, and the advantage of the real-time PCR was its increased sensitivity. We have established a diagnostic and a real-time PCR system for rapid and reliable genus- and serovar- (S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium) specific detection of Salmonella for monitoring purposes in the poultry food chain. Sensitivity is equal to, or higher than, that of the standard bacterial culture method, and the method still provides the Salmonella culture if needed.
Authors:D. Krasucka, C. Kowalski, M. Osypiuk and G. Opielak
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection after precolumn formaldehyde derivation was developed to detect concentrations of amoxicillin (AMX) in poultry plasma. Proteins in plasma samples spiked with AMX were precipitated with a phosphate buffer and trichloroacetic acid. After precolumn treatment of the extraction product of AMX with formaldehyde under acidic and heating conditions, HPLC analysis with fluorescence (FL) detection at an excitation wavelength of 355 nm and an emission wavelength of 450 nm was performed. A mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and a buffer solution (0.05 M KH2PO4 pH = 5.6), which yielded AMX retention time 8.58 min, was suitable for detection of AMX. The calculated standard curve of the reaction product was linear, and the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.999. The limit of detection and quantification, the accuracy, and the precision were evaluated. Recoveries of spiked amoxicillin were >92%, with a coefficient of variation in the range of 0.35–0.89%. This method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of amoxicillin to poultry.
Authors:A. Ghidán, Orsolya Dobay, Éva Kaszanyitzky, Péterné Samu, S. Amyes, K. Nagy and F. Rozgonyi
In this report we examined the glycopeptide susceptibility of enterococci, isolated in 2005, from slaughtered animals, within the confines of Hungarian Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System. We determined the presence of the
genes as well as their genetic relatedness in enterococci from poultry.
sp. strains (n = 175) were collected from intestinal samples of slaughtered poultry in 2005. The origin of the samples was registered at county level. After screening the strains with 30 mg vancomycin disc 19 (86%) intermediate resistant and 4 (3%) fully resistant strains were found. The distribution of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)-values among 23 enterococcus strains which were intermediate or resistant to vancomycin were 0.25 mg/L (4.4%), 2 mg/L (8.6%), 4 mg/L (8.6%), 8 mg/L (61%), 16 mg/L (8.6%) and 256 mg/L (8.6%). The MICs of teicoplanin were 0.25 mg/L (4.3%), 1 (8.6%), 4 mg/L (78.3%), 16 mg/L (4.3%) and 256 mg/L (4.3%). The two most vancomycin-resistant strains were
).The farms that produced these strains can be reservoirs of VRE and the affected farms should change the technology of disinfection and breeding in order to prevent the emergence of high numbers of human VRE isolates in Hungary.
Authors:E. F. S. M. Ramalho, I. M. G. Santos, A. S. Maia, A. L. Souza and A. G. Souza
Even during the economical crisis of October, 2008, the world production of poultry meat registered 4.5% of growth, slightly below than the 6.2% of growth registered in 2007, with a total of 71.2 millions of tons
Authors:E. F. S. M. Ramalho, A. R. Albuquerque, A. L. Souza, A. K. Barro, A. S. Maia, I. M. G. Santos and A. G. Souza
by the relative values of the oxidation rate that have already been obtained for oleates (C18:1), linoleates (C18:2), and linolenates (C18:3), respectively, as 1: 41: 98 [ 3 ].
In relation to poultry fat, variations in fatty acid composition