The authors investigated the poverty of children by means of a sample covering only the poorest third of the population. Their starting point was that children have special needs that differ from those of adults, and that the degree of satisfaction of those needs determines to a large extent the quality of their life and their future life chances. The results show that within the poor population the children in the most disadvantaged situation are those who live in Budapest, who live in families without an active earner, and the children on of the Roma. The difference between the poverty of children living in the capital and in villages is significant despite the fact that on the national level the income level of the capital is higher than in the villages. Two factors that were expected to be significantly influencing need satisfaction, namely the age of the children and the number of children in the household do not seem to differentiate significantly the poor population. The majority of poor households with children get some social benefits but the level of the benefits is too low to significantly improve the situation.
The author summarizes the results of employing a new method, the proportional deprivation index (PDI). The novelty of the approach is the weighting of deficits in specific dimensions. The PDI takes two things into account: the lack of living condition components owing to scarcity of resources and the importance people attach to the lack of these items. According to the author's opinion the central components of this new concepts may play a part in the empirical analysis of the problem of exclusion vs. integration. On the basis of the comparison of deprivation and income poverty and the analysis of these according to various socio-economic factors the author concludes that the investigations based on disparate concepts have led to very similar results. However, certain dissimilarities are also observable, thus the simultaneous application of the concepts may/will provide a more differentiated and nuanced understanding of poverty and disadvantage.
The paper analyses multi-dimensional poverty also called exclusion with the help of a large national sample. The paper shows the long-term trends covering three decades of increasing income inequalities, the decade-long decrease and slow upturn of personal incomes, and the changes in various poverty measures. The second part offers an approach to multiple deprivation or exclusion as the simultaneous presence of various aspects of objective and subjective poverty, and gives an account of the situation of the families that may be considered excluded. The third part analyzes the dynamics of poverty as a lifetime and as a shorter-term experience, and also the future expectations of the poor. The conclusion is that there is a small and not very visible group split off the 'first society' that, without public help is condemned to lasting exclusion.
Mitev, P.-E., Tomova, I. and Konstantinova, L. (2000): The price of procrastination? The social costs of delayed market transition in Bulgaria. In Emigh, R. and Szelényi, I. (eds.): Poverty, Ethnicity and Gender in Transitional Societies in Eastern
The authors present the theoretical bases and the results of an equivalence scale developed recently in the HSO. The paper shows how the income distribution and various measures of income inequality are affected by the choice of the equivalence scale. The authors investigate the impact of this choice on the phenomenon of poverty. According to the authors' opinion no global, generally applicable equivalence scale can be constructed because an appropriate scale is largely determined by the country's special circumstances. In order to change the present Hungarian practice they suggest not only professional, but also political consensus, because the choice of the equivalence scale can be advantageous for certain social groups, while disadvantageous for others.