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Legal theorising

An unrecognised need for practicing the European law

Acta Juridica Hungarica
Author: Csaba Varga

As a legal philosophical overview of the operation of European law, the paper aims at describing the mentality working in it by also answering the query whether the European law itself is to be regarded as the extension of some domestic laws or it offers quite a new and sui generis structure built upon all member states’ laws. In either option, the connection between the European law and the composing national laws recalls the embodiment of post modern clichés, as the former’s actual working (both purposefully and through its by-effects) exerts a destructive impact upon the bounds once erected by the latter’s anchorage in the traditions of legal positivism. In addition, the excellence in efficacious operation of the European law is achieved by transposing the control on its central enactments to autonomous implementation and jurisdiction by its member nations. According to the conclusions of the paper, (1) the (post) positivism as the traditional domestic juristic outlook is inappropriate to any adequate investigation of the reality of European law. As part of the global post modernism itself, the European law stems from a kind of artificial reality construction (as the attempted materialisation of its own virtuality), which is from the outset freed from the captivity of both historical particularities and human experience, i.e., of anything concretely given hic et nunc. At the same time, (2) by its operation the European law dynamises large structures, through which it makes to move that what is chaos itself. For it is the reconstructive human intent solely that may try to arrange its outcome according to some ideal of order posteriorly-without, however, the operation itself (forming its construct and assuring its daily management) striving for anything of order (or ordered state and systemicity). This is the way in which the European law can be an adequate reflection upon the (macro) economic basis to which it forms the superstructure. Accordingly, (3) the whole construct is frameworked (i.e., integrated into one working unit and also mobilised) by an artificially animated dynamism. Concludingly, no national interest can be asserted in it without successful national self-positioning ready to launch it.

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70 78 Peng, Guoyue [Chinese Language Ignored] (2000): Kindai Chūgokugo no keigo shisutemu [Chinese Language Ignored] [The politeness system of Pre-Modern Chinese]. Tokyo

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the pre-modern, tradition-based Jewish community as a “people:” aspiring to separate its denominational life and religious practices from the other spheres of private and social life. 22 This may also have meant adopting some secularized elements of

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This is a revision of J.R. Krueger’s reading and translation of the Ordos Prince Sagang Sechen’s moralistic poem written in 1662 in seventy-nine alliterative quatrains attached to his Erdeni-yin tobči, the Jewel Summary, the ‘classical’ chronicle of pre-modern Mongol historiography. A new reading and interpretation is offered with ample commentary.

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The paper discusses the strategies and the rhetorical elements of the Norwegian Inner Mission during a period of political and cultural conflict  the 1920’s and 1930’s.Special attentions paid to understanding the ambivalence between premodern values and modern strategies as they were expressed by one of the leaders of one of the inner mission organisations, professor of theology Ole Hallesby (1879 –1961).In his th nking, the explicit aim of the nner mission activities was the rechristianization of Norway, the means were actions organised according to the modern soc ety, but the cultural and soc al ideal was the non-secularzed, premodern Norway – as opposed to urban pluralism. Probably, this ambivalence made the inner mission strategy a political failure.

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In premodern Japan the warrior class (samurai) was placed at the top of society and martial arts were considered the basis of their education. Therefore martial arts schools played an important role in forming the way of thinking of warriors, and as these schools expressed their views on technique, morality and philosophy through issuing handbooks, documents and teaching material (densho), research of densho is perhaps the best way to understand the teachings and inner workings of schools. In the present article the author attempts to examine one of the basic texts of an important school of the jūjutsu branch of Japanese martial arts, the Takenouchi-ryū, to provide an understanding of the structure and content of a typical densho.

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Along with 19th-century folklore material, church documents from the 18th and 19th centuries emphasize the Păscălia as a book used in bibliomancy. In this study, I aim to explore the originally allowed and designated functions of this writing, and to provide an explanation for why this book was associated with the world of bibliomancy in both folklore and in the officially sanctioned culture of the Uniate clergy from Transylvania. Furthermore, by focusing on the specific case of the Uniate vicar Ioan Halmaghi, who was educated in Roman-Catholic institutions, I set out to explore the attitude of the elite clergy toward this text, and to highlight how a corpus of pre-modern and un-Western knowledge was simply ejected into the sphere of magic and superstition.

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Turkic kinship terminologies represent a mixture of words of native and foreign origin, and the proportion of loanwords reflects the degree of linguistic and cultural interference between the Turkic and other Eurasian languages. As the intensity of socio-cultural relations between languages and communities increases, the proportion of loanwords in kinship vocabulary also increases. This paper provides an overview of historical, linguistic, and cultural aspects of kinship loanwords in the Turkic languages.

The paper covers the following eight kinds of kin types in the Turkic languages: (1) parents, (2) siblings, (3) cousins, (4) children, (5) grandparents, (6) uncles/aunts, (7) nephews/nieces, (8) grandchildren. Due to the fact that in the conventional Turkic system of kinship, which is especially well-represented in pre-modern Turkic languages, two or three of these kins may be merged in one single term on the basis of generation and lineage branch, kinship loanwords examined are ordered by this criterion.

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This article, based on a survey of scholarship and world-wide-web 'metatexts' (reviews, translators' guidelines, etc.), discusses the options open to translators when translating older literary and religious texts. It is argued that different decisions along a scale ranging from 'hyperarchaisation' to 'violent modernisation' give different deictic signals, which point the reader to different aspects of the temporal and cultural relationship between source and target text. Translators' decisions and readers' interpretations are mediated by cognitive factors: translators may be more or less skilled in producing certain target-text styles or conveying certain signals, and readers more or less able or willing to process certain styles. They are also mediated by translational and literary norms, though these may vary across time, between cultures and between interest-groups. In the recent English-reading world, the interaction of pre-modern, modernist and post-modern norms can give different attitudes towards the use of modernising and archaising techniques: archaisation in poetry translation, for example, tends to be seen as hackneyed 'Victorian' translationese rather than as signalling the source text's specific historicity, whereas archaisation in religious translation can be seen as integrating the text into a liturgical tradition.

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A szerző F. Braudelnek a történelem síkokra bontását felvázoló elméleti alapjából kiindulva teszi fel a kérdést, hogy a magyar történelemben a modernizáció milyen távú folyamat. Ehhez előbb tisztázza, hogy mit is jelent a modernizáció fogalma, és melyek a korszerűség mutatói. A folyamatban ma a legfontosabb tényező a centrum és a periféria, az előbbi fejlődése pedig jelentős mértékben az utóbbi rovására történik. A megkésettség a periférián, különösen a globalizált világgazdaságban külső minta követését jelenti. Nincs azonban mechanikus, lineáris fejlődés, importált eszmékkel és intézményekkel a társadalmat nem lehet átalakítani. A modernizáció csakis az adott ország lehetőségeire építve bontakozhat ki.Ezt követően a szerző áttekinti a magyarországi modernizáció folyamatát, és megállapítja, hogy a XXI. század első évtizedében hatalom nélküli országgá vált. A továbbiakban azt vizsgálja, hogy a politikai rendszer mennyiben képes és hajlandó észlelni és kezelni a társadalom problémáit, konfliktusait, változásait. Ebben az összefüggésben vizsgálja a politikai struktúrát, kultúrát, annak premodern elemeit. Megállapítja, hogy az államszervezet és a pártstruktúra inadekvát elemei gátolják a modernizációt. Egyebek között a pártrendszer sem alkot még modern pártstruktúrát. A pártok a súlyos gazdasági helyzetben kényszerpályán mozognak, bizonytalan a társadalmi bázisuk és „izmusok” terhelik őket.A szerző külön részben foglalkozik a jog uralmával, a jogbiztonsággal, a hatósági és emberi magatartással, a jogszerű működéssel. Az elmúlt húsz esztendő választási és kormányzati gyakorlata alapján megállapítja, hogy az anomikus társadalmi jelenségek nem segítik elő a modernizáció folyamatát. Egyelőre azonban a gazdasági válság és a befejezetlen modernizáció megoldási módozatai váratnak magukra, illetve bizonytalanok.

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