In this paper we examine the influence of text editing (edited vs. verbatim subtitles) and subtitle presentation rates (12 vs. 15 characters per second) on the comprehension and reading patterns of interlingual and intralingual subtitles among a group of 44 deaf, 33 hard of hearing and 60 hearing Polish adult subjects. The results of the eyetracking study show no benefit of editing down the text of subtitles, particularly in the case of intralingual subtitling and deaf viewers. Verbatim subtitles displayed with the higher presentation rate yielded slightly better comprehension results, were skipped less often, and resulted in more effective reading patterns. Deaf and hard of hearing participants had lower comprehension than hearing people; they also had a higher number of fixations per subtitle and were found to dwell on subtitles longer than the hearing.
Repetitive acoustic stimuli elicit steady-state response (SSR) in the gamma-band both in humans and in mammals. Our aim was to investigate changes of the spontaneous gamma activity and the SSR in the auditory cortex of cats in the background of an instrumental conditioning situation. Epidural electrodes were chronically implanted above the auditory neocortex. The presentation rate of the clicks varied between 20 and 65/s. Spontaneous EEG and SSR were collected in three behavioral states: in an indifferent environment, in the instrumental cage while the cat was waiting for the light CS, and when she stepped on the pedal and was waiting for the meat reward. Using different repetition rate clicks we determined which stimulus rate elicited the largest SSR in these three situations. In quiet animal the highest SSR appeared at 28-30/s. Before and during the CS the optimal stimulus rate shifted to 32-38/s. The frequency of the spontaneous gamma activity changed in parallel way depending on the situation. We conclude that both the SSR and the spontaneous gamma activity reflect resonant activity of the same neuronal circuit of the auditory cortex, and it is modulated by the motivational state of the animal.
: Learning, Memory, and Cognition , 24 ( 1 ), 234 .
Emberson , L. L ., Conway , C. M ., & Christiansen , M. H . ( 2011 ). Timing is everything: Changes in presentationrate have opposite effects on auditory and visual implicit statistical learning
Gerver , D.
1969 /2002. The Effects of Source Language PresentationRate on the Performance of Simultaneous Conference Interpreters . Republished in: Pöchhacker , F. & Shlesinger , M. (eds) The Interpreting Studies Reader
. , & TRAINOR , L. J. ( 2009 a). Maturation of cortical mismatch responses to occasional pitch change in early infancy: Effects of presentationrate and magnitude of change . Neuropsychologia , 47 , 218 – 229
audience reception, the impact of technological constraints (e.g. presentationrate) on viewers, cognitive processing and accessibility studies. Eye-tracking can also be combined with other measurement tools to provide more accurate results. Kruger