The enamelled gold chalice made by the Kolozsvár goldsmith István Brózer is an emblematic and much-published work of Transylvanian goldsmithing. The communion cup made in 1641 was ordered by prince György I Rákóczi for the Calvinists of the Farkas street congregation, Kolozsvár. It is an outstanding relic not only for its material but also for the rich figural ornamentation of the cup. The narrative cycle depicts Christ's suffering from Easter Thursday to the Entombment. The graphic prototypes for the repoussé panels were 18 scenes in Adriaen Collaert's Passion published around 1610. The rich cloisonné and champlevé enamelling framing the scenes and covering the stem, node and foot attests to the experienced use of the cosses de pois decoration that evolved in the art of the Paris court in the 1630s. That was exactly where the master, István Brózer stayed during his peregrinations before reaching mastership.
The modern decorative program of the cup is paired with a highly conservative composition. There are two main gothicizing trends in Transylvanian goldsmiths' art in the early modern age. One can be interpreted as survival, when pattern sheets, forms, workshop traditions continuously lived on – in Transylvania up to the first third of the18th century. The historicist, revival or renovatio trend represented by the Brózer cup is more prevalent in Central European goldsmithing. For the liturgical vessels made in rising numbers again from the end of the 16th century the pre-Reformation style of the late gothic was the model in the Kingdom of Hungary and in the Transylvanian Principality.
István Brózer's chalice is almost the only high-quality goldsmith's piece testifying to the art patronage of the Transylvanian princely court.
In the first third of the fourteenth century a new type of document appeared in Muscovite Rus’: the testamentary will. The wills of the grand princes of Moscow as well as the agreements and treaties between various Rus’ princes have survived. These written wills are primary sources revealing a network of relationships among members of the Moscow princely family and recording changes in the inheritance regime. They enhance our knowledge of the era’s social structure, economic life and cultural history. Examining the documents, we can follow the development of ownership relations, the operation of the grand princely court, and the division of movable and immovable property, tax revenues, personal property, jewellery, and valuable clothing items. The testamentary wills provide information concerning the history of the Kalitovič family, giving us insights into the events preceding the birth of the Russian state and the development of its institutions. In the article, I employ authentic historical sources (the testamentary wills) to explore the peculiar administrative system that arose after the death of Ivan Kalita, namely the tripartite holding of Moscow and the attached areas under the direction of members of the grand princely family.
) using the example of the city of Brassó (now Brașov, Romania). János Buza presents the attempts made by the princelycourt to legally regulate inflation in 1622. Teréz Oborni 's study of financial conditions during the era of Prince Gábor Bethlen is
az erdélyi fejedelmi udvarokban. [The “Tiled Room” as Audience Room in the PrincelyCourts of Transylvania.] http://pattantyusceramics.files.wordpress. com/2012/02/bokalyoshaz1.pdf (accessed on 16 September 2013)
R ADVÁNYI Diána 2011 : A