polymers and by comparing their melting behaviour using the exploratory multivariate analysis method of principalcomponentanalysis.
Commercial pelletised samples of LDPE (denoted LDPE 1 to 6) were supplied by Qenos
A useful microcalorimetric technique based on the bacterial heat production was applied to evaluate the antibacterial effects
of Benzoinum and Styrax on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The thermogenic power-time curves of S. aureus growth in the presence of the two drugs were determined by a thermal activity monitor (TAM) air isothermal microcalorimeter,
ampoule mode, at 310 K. Some quantitative metabolic parameters, such as growth rate constant k, the heat-flow power P, the appearance time for the heat power t, and the heat production Q were obtained from these curves. By analyzing these curves and some quantitative parameters using principal component analysis
(PCA), the antibacterial effects of Benzoinum and Styrax on S. aureus growth were accurately evaluated from the change of the two main parameters, the heat-flow power for the second peaks P2nd and total heat production Qt: the antibacterial effects of the two drugs at concentrations of 0–125 mg mL−1 were both enhanced with increasing the concentration, and Benzoinum with IC50 of 132.2 mg mL−1 had stronger antibacterial effect than Styrax with IC50 of 179.8 mg mL−1. This study provides some useful references for the application of Benzoinum and Styra as potential antibacterial agents. Microcalorimetry is a powerful analytical tool for the characterization of the microbial
growth progress and the evaluation of the drugs’ efficiency.
In this study, six numerical data sets are presented valid for eighteen thyme (Thymus L.) species and characterizing three biological properties of these herbs, i.e., antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activity. Four data sets characterize antioxidant properties, one data set characterizes antibacterial property, and one data set characterizes anticancer activity. Antioxidant properties were measured with two free radical standards (DPPH and ABTS), two free radical scavenger standards (trolox and gallic acid), and three analytical techniques (EPR spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible [UV–vis] spectrophotometry, and the dot blot test with bioautographic detection). Antibacterial activity was tested upon the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) strain, and anticancer activity was evaluated upon the human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HCT116). It was found out that the thyme extracts characterize with all three biological activities (yet with anticancer activity not very strongly pronounced) and that in quantitative terms, each activity strongly depends on the thyme species considered. An ultimate goal of this study was to investigate if any quantitatively confirmed correlation exists among these three biological activities, which might point out to a common mechanism of their action. To this effect, six sets of numerical data underwent hierarchical clustering and Principal Component Analysis. Based on the results obtained, no quantitative correlation was established among antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activity of the thyme species, which seems indicative of different molecular mechanisms of these three actions.
Chromatographic retention data have been studied for the 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid esters of a homologous series of aliphatic C
linear alchols on five unconventional TLC stationary phases — rice starch, microcrystalline cellulose, aminoplast, talc, and paraffin oil-impregnated silica gel. The stationary phases (supports) were characterized by means of retention scores obtained by principal-components analysis (PCA). PCA shows that although the main retention principles are similar, the unconventional supports differ in secondary retention mechanisms. The stationary phases were also compared on the basis of their capacity to reflect analyte lipophilicity and the correlation of this with their experimental partition coefficients, log
Studies on the thermal decomposition of commercial raw plant materials used in medicine were performed. 144 independent samples
of plant materials — herbs, leaves,flowers, inflorescences, fruits, roots, rhizomes and barks, collected by Medicinal Plant
Works‘Herbapol’, were analyzed. Thermal decomposition was performed using OD-103 Derivatograph. As a result of analysis, it
was established, that thermal decomposition of majority of samples proceeds through three stages. The analysis of fruits revealed,
that their thermal decomposition proceeds in four stages. In order to obtain a more clear classification of the analyzed plant
materials principal component analysis (PCA) was applied. Interpretation of the PCA results allows to state, that samples
of raw materials from the same plant species in majority of cases are characterized by similar course of thermal decomposition
due to similar chemical composition. In this way the differences in general chemical composition of medicinal
plants raw materials can be determined.
Thermal decomposition of magnesium salts of organic acids used in medicine (Mg acetate, Mg valproate, Mg lactate, Mg citrate,
Mg hydrogen aspartate, Zn hydrogen aspartate) was analyzed by thermoanalytical, calorimetrical, and computational methods.
Thermoanalytical studies were performed with aid of a derivatograph. 50-, 100-, and 200-mg samples were heated in a static
air atmosphere at a heating rate of 3, 5, 10, and 15 °C min−1 up to the final temperature of 700–900 °C. By differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetry (TG), and derivative
thermogravimetry (DTG) methods, it has been established that thermal decomposition of the salts under study occurs via two
stages. The first stage (dehydratation) was distinctly marked on the thermoanalytical curves. Calorimetrical studies were
carried out by using of a heat-flux Mettler Toledo differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) system. Ten milligram samples of
compounds under study were heated in the temperature range from 20 to 400 °C at a heating rate of 10 and 20 °C min−1 under an air stream. The studies showed that the values of transitions heats and enthalpies of dehydration for investigated
salts varied with the increasing of heating rate. For chemometric evaluation of thermoanalytical results, the principal component
analysis (PCA) was applied. This method revealed that points on PC1 versus PC2 diagrams corresponding to the compounds of
similar chemical constitution are localized in the similar ranges of the first two PC’s values. This proves that thermal decomposition
reflects similarity in the structure of magnesium salts of organic acids.
This research uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to investigate global ionospheric integrated electron content map (GIM) anomalies corresponding to Japan’s Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake on 13 June 2008 (UT) (Mj = 7.2, JMA scale). The PCA transform is applied to GIMs for 20:00 to 22:00 on June 08, 11 and 12, 2008 (UT). To perform the transform, image processing is used to subdivide the GIMs into 100 (36° long. and 18° lat.) smaller maps to form transform matrices of dimensions 2 × 1. The transform allows for principal eigenvalues to be assigned to ionospheric integrated electron content anomalies. Anomalies are represented by large principal eigenvalues (i.e., >0.5 in a normalized set). The possibility of geomagnetic storms and solar flare activity affecting the results is done through examining the Dst index for corresponding days. The study shows that for the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, PCA possibly determined earthquake related ionospheric disturbances for the whole region, including the epicenter.
The leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. are one of the sources of food and traditional medicine. A combination of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) bioautographic assay with mass spectrometry (MS) has been performed to screen and identify the antioxidant compounds in the leaves of H. sabdariffa L. The crude extract of H. sabdariffa L. was separated on silica gel 60 HPTLC plates in an automatic developing chamber (ADC2) with toluene–ethyl acetate–formic acid–methanol (6:6:1.6:1, v/v) as the mobile phase. Antioxidant bands were visualized by dipping in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reagent. Five antioxidant compounds were identified as neochlorogenic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), cryptochlorogenic acid (3), rutin (4), and isoquercitrin (5), which could be the predominant contributors to the antioxidant activity of the leaves of H. sabdariffa L. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out to discriminate ten accessions of H. sabdariffa L. using an image-processing software. This simple HPTLC fingerprint assisted by PCA can be used as a reliable method for the discrimination of different accessions of H. sabdariffa L.
The goal of this study is to determine whether principal component analysis (PCA) can be used to process latitude-time ionospheric TEC data on a monthly basis to identify earthquake associated TEC anomalies earlier than 5 days before a large (M ≥ 6) earthquake. PCA is applied to latitude-time (mean-of-a-month) ionospheric total electron content (TEC) records collected from the Japan GEONET system to detect TEC anomalies associated with 26 earthquakes in Japan (M ≥ 6.0) from 2004 to 2005. According to the results, PCA was able to discriminate clear TEC anomalies in the months when all 26 earthquakes occurred. After reviewing months when no M ≥ 6.0 earthquakes occurred but geomagnetic storm activity was present, it is possible that the maximal principal eigenvalues PCA returned for these 26 earthquakes indicate earthquake associated TEC anomalies. Previously, PCA has been used to discriminate earthquake-associated TEC anomalies recognized by other researchers who found that statistical association between large earthquakes and TEC anomalies could be established in the 5 days before earthquake nucleation; however, since PCA uses the characteristics of principal eigenvalues to determine earthquake related TEC anomalies, it is possible to show that such anomalies existed earlier than this 5-day statistical window. In this paper, this is shown through the application of PCA to one-dimensional TEC data relating to the Kyushu earthquake of 20 March 2005 (M = 6.6). The analysis is applied to daily TEC and reveals a large principal eigenvalue (representative of an earthquake associated anomaly) for March 9, 11 days before the March 20 earthquake.