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The present essay deals with the question of harmonization of private law in Europe. The author gives an overview of the efforts of European states to unify private law, also underlining the results and shortcomings of these activities. He highlights the importance of Roman law in the unification of private law. The author mentions - inter alia - the role of Roman law in the development of the non-antique, "modern" natural law by referring to the term of Entzauberung der Welt by Max Weber. In addition, he analyzes the influence of the historical school of jurisprudence (Pandektistik) on the development of European private law. The study presents a short summary on the activity of the Academy of Pavia. The members of this Academy, among whom one may find experts of Roman law, Common Law and private law make efforts to codify the European law of contracts, which should be regarded as a great step towards a unified European private law.

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Az alkotmányos magánjog kérdései a tulajdonjog, a környezetvédelem, a véleménynyilvánítás szabadsága és az alkotmánybíráskodás mellett számos kérdést érintenek. Jelen tanulmány az alkotmányos magánjog aktuális és égető problémáit tárgyalja.

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Magyarországon a környezetvédelmi magánjog alaptényállása a szomszédjogi zavarás törvényi tényállása a polgári törvénykönyvben. Ezt két szankciórendszer teszi lex perfectává: a birtokvédelmi és a kártérítési. A környezetvédelmi magánjog kártérítési felelősségi szankciója kvázi deliktualitást mutat. A környezetvédelmi magánjog mint tudományos kifejezés kevésbé terjedt el Magyarországon, mint például az angol, a francia vagy a német szaknyelvben. A környezetvédelmi magánjog joggyakorlata ellenben széles körű kazuisztikával bír. A környezetvédelmi magánjog absztrakcióját nem vagy alig végezte el a magyarországi jogtudomány, ezért a környezetvédelmi magánjogot jobbára csak a „beavatott”, a konkrét szakterületen tevékenykedő jogászok ismerik behatóan. Ezen a helyzeten a jogi oktatás hivatott változtatni.

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The paper gives an overview of the Hungarian legal regulation of the legal status of the foetus. In this respect, it reveals the historical roots of the legal protection of the foetus in Hungary. It analyses in details the theoretical standpoints of Hungarian authors of civil and criminal law. It describes the unconstitutional legal practice of the period of communist dictatorship (1950-1990) that lead to the unparalleled destruction of 4,5 million embryos. It analyses in details the unconstitutional practice. The analysis also includes the treatment of he prevailing "Embryonic Life Protection Act". Finally, the essay determines, in accordance with Hungarian legal practice and jurisprudence, the legal status of the foetus and comes forward with proposals addressed to future legislation.

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The Middle Persian Deeds of Ardakhšēr Son of Pābag (Kār-nāmag i Ardakhšēr i Pābagān) contains the story of Ardakhšēr, later the founder of the Sasanian dynasty. The author of this article analysed the judicial relevant data of the epic and compared them with the Zoroastrian customs and Sasanian jurisprudence. The contradictions found led him to doubt the legitimacy of the first Sasanian king.

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Acta Juridica Hungarica
Authors: Ádám Boóc and András Koltay

Ád´m Boóc, G´bor Hamza: Az európai mag´njog fejlődése. A modern mag´njogi rendszerek kialakul´sa a római jogi hagyom´nyok alapj´n (Trends in the Development of Private Law in Europe. The Role of the Civilian Tradition in the Shaping of Modern Systems of Private Law.) Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó, Budapest, 2002.; Ád´m Boóc, Francois Gendron: L'interprétation des contrats. Montréal, 2002.; Andr´s Koltay, G´bor Jobb´gyi-Judit Fazekas: Law of contract in Hungary. Kluwer Law International, The Hague-London-New York, 2003. (From the series: International encyclopaedia of laws.)

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The study deals with theoretical questions of the Hungarian privatization law. It clarifies the differences between the economic and legal concept of privatization, the various interpretations of privatization. The Hungarian privatization was the earliest and at the same time-after the German-the quickest completed privatization in the former socialist countries. It reviews the so-called spontaneous privatization between 1988–1990, and the privatization legislature of 1992 and 1995 as well. As a conclusion the study deals with the evaluation of the privatization law, and with the consequences of privatization with regards to social politics.

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From Transnational Principles to European Rules of Civil Procedure is a joint project of the European Law Institute (ELI) and the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT). This paper gives a systematic presentation of the progress by one of the project’s working groups tasked with the elaboration of rules on the obligations of parties, lawyers and judges using as a starting point Principle 11 of the Transnational Principles of Civil Procedure produced by the American Law Institute (ALI) and UNIDROIT. Since November 2014, progress by the Working Group has advanced, resulting in a number of draft rules dealing with procedural obligations (and sanctions for their breach) related to case management, pleading of facts, evidence and law and the efforts to achieve autonomous settlement of civil disputes. The paper describes the major achievements of this work, emphasising several important changes in comparison to the conventional approach to procedural obligations.

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. 1998. Codification of civil law in the People’s Republic of China: form and substance in the reception of concepts and elements of western private law. The University of British Columbia Law Review Vol. 32. 153

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Taxation and tax law cannot exist without biases because tax law can be seen per definition as a set of biases. Even if the state pursuing its fiscal policy cannot be neutral, one can expect to enforce the principle of equal treatment before the law. Besides, state intervention need be in proportion to the objectives of the policy of redistribution or economic stabilization. Also, fiscal policy need rely on a system of tax administration that operates in accordance with the principles of openness, good governance and legal certainty. It is ideal if the legal regulation of the procedure of tax administration is fully fledged. The legal regulation of the tax liability need be comprehensive and cover all the processes of gathering tax information, identifying the tax liability and collection of taxes. Moreover, tax administration and administrative law are inadvertently in a need of being completed by private law. Where tax authorities are not explicitly authorised by statutory law to act, they must rely on the principles that are in accordance with the constitutional order. Notably, in Hungary, there is no statutory law that would preclude the universal effect of the Civil Code, covering all the financial relations whether to be made between private persons or between private persons and the representative of the public. Finally, for the purposes of approximating an ideal tax system, the possibility of horizontal coordination must not be left out of consideration. In this context, legal and tax planning and the choice of legal and tax regimes by parties have come to the forefront. Bargaining (e.g., advance ruling) has not been strange from tax law either.

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