Authors:Bernhard Gutmann, David Obermayer, Jean-Paul Roduit, Dominique M. Roberge and C. Oliver Kappe
Hydrazoic acid (HN3) was used in a safe and reliable way for the synthesis of 5-substitued-1H-tetrazoles and for the preparation of N-(2-azidoethyl)acylamides in a continuous flow format. Hydrazoic acid was generated in situ either from an aqueous feed of sodium azide upon mixing with acetic acid, or from neat trimethylsilyl azide upon mixing with methanol. For both processes, subsequent reaction of the in situ generated hydrazoic acid with either organic nitriles (tetrazole formation) or 2-oxazolines (ring opening to β-azido-carboxamides) was performed in a coil reactor in an elevated temperature/pressure regime. Despite the explosive properties of HN3, the reactions could be performed safely at very high temperatures to yield the desired products in short reaction times and in excellent product yields. The scalability of both protocols was demonstrated for selected examples. Employing a commercially available benchtop flow reactor, productivities of 18.9 g/h of 5-phenyltetrazole and 23.0 g/h of N-(1-azido-2-methylpropan- 2-yl)acetamide were achieved.
Authors:Søren Heintz, Aleksandar Mitic, Rolf H. Ringborg, Ulrich Krühne, John M. Woodley and Krist V. Gernaey
A microfluidic toolbox for accelerated development of biocatalytic processes has great potential. This is especially the case for the development of advanced biocatalytic process concepts, where reactors and product separation methods are closely linked together to intensify the process performance, e.g., by the use of in-situ product removal (ISPR). This review provides a general overview of currently available tools in a microfluidic toolbox and how this toolbox can be applied to the development of advanced biocatalytic process concepts. Emphasis is placed on describing the possibilities and advantages of the microfluidic toolbox that are difficult to achieve with conventional batch-processbased technologies. Application of this microfluidic toolbox will potentially make it possible to intensify biocatalytic reactions and thereby facilitate the development towards novel and advanced biocatalytic processes, which in many cases have proven too difficult in conventional batch equipment.
Authors:Buchi Reddy Vaddula, Swathi Yalla and Michael A. Gonzalez
A simple and rapid one-step continuous-flow synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of chromene derivatives from the reaction of aromatic aldehydes, α-cyanomethylene compounds, and naphthols. In this contribution, a one-step continuous-flow protocol in a ThalesNano H-Cube Pro™ has been developed for the preparation of these chromene derivatives. This arises from the multicomponent one-step reaction of aromatic aldehydes, α-cyanomethylene compounds, and naphthols. This flow protocol was optimized in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, which is a more environmentfriendly solvent. The faster residence times (<2 min) coupled with elevated pressure (∼25 bar) results in an efficient, safer, faster, and modular reaction. Results obtained illustrate that this base-catalyzed reaction affords the respective chromene derivative products in very high yields. The products can then be easily purified by recrystallization, if desired.
Authors:Hanspeter Sprecher, M. Nieves Pérez Payán, Michael Weber, Goekcen Yilmaz and Gregor Wille
The synthesis and utilisation of acyl azides in a flow apparatus combined with an automated extraction unit is described. This process safely provides multi-100 g quantities of a labile diacyl azide (3) as an intermediate that could not be generated safely by classic batch methods. Its subsequent conversion to the desired amine (4) represents an example for process intensification. The same set-up with an output capacity of >30 g/h was used for the unattended synthesis of benzoyl azide as the final product in solution (tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME), 0.5 M).
evaluation of the effectiveness of continuous thin film processing in a spinning disc reactor for bulk free-radical photo-copolymerisation”C. G. Dobie, M. Vicevic, K. V. K. Boodhoo * Chemical Engineering and Processing: ProcessIntensification 2013 , 71 , 97
. W. , Gee , A. D. , Long , N. J. , de Mello , A. J. , Vilar , R. Chemistry - A European Journal 2012 , 18 , 2768 – 2772 .
“ Biodiesel processintensification in a very simple microchannel device ” Santacesaria , E