Dough mixing properties are important in determining wheat processing and end-use quality. The Reomixer is a mixograph type device which provides mixing curves, described in detail by a total of 17 parameters. We analyzed the Reomixer mixing parameters of 26 breeding lines grown in 2007, in four contrasting environments (with and without Nitrogen fertilization, under water stress or irrigated). Using these data, we attempted to condense the information by identifying the most suitable parameters for use in a breeding program. We used the following criteria: high reproducibility (minimum coefficient of variation among repetitions), high genotype influence (i.e. high heritability), larger amount of information about overall variation of the other mixing parameters and complementarity of information (low correlation with other selected parameters). Mixing parameters varied widely for all criteria and no one parameter was best for all of them. Based on average performance we selected: “initial slope”, “peak time”, “peak height”, “end width” and “breakdown”, as having better ranking for the first three criteria and being less correlated between themselves than other mixing parameters. The five selected parameters cover all phases of dough development and describe all basic rheological aspects of mixing properties.
Authors:Elisabete De Nadai Fernandes, M. Bacchi, G. Sarriés, and E. Ferraz
Soil as an impurity in sugarcane is a serious problem for the ethanol industry, increasing production and maintenance costs
and reducing the productivity. Fe, Hf, Sc and Th determined by INAA were used as tracers to assess the amount of soil in sugarcane
from truckloads as well as in the juice extraction process. Quality control tools were applied to results identifying the
need for stratification according to soil type and moisture. Soil levels of truckloads had high variability indicating potential
for improving cut and loading operations. Samples from the juice extraction process allowed tracking the soil in the mill
Countries that are candidates for EU accession face a complex and urgent task to adopt and implement the acquis communautaireon food safety. For the food industries in Candidate Countries, this implies that EU standards of food production and processing, quality and safety have to be met in order to ensure a high level of consumer protection and satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to assess progress towards new levels of food safety performance in one Candidate Country, Hungary, in one food sector (fresh produce), and evaluate the capacity of the system to demonstrate quality assurance to the satisfaction of private customers and public regulators. The analysis of food safety performance has been undertaken using a novel application of the benchmarking methodology taking the UK fresh produce importing chain as the benchmark.
In the research area of healthier meat products a possible trend is to replace high energy density fat in formulations with substances providing less energy than fat. The aim of the producers is to obtain a product having maximum yield with similar or same organoleptic properties and structure like well-known full-fat analogues. Properties of high fat products can be restored with the use of different fat substitutes, non-meat protein, and/or hydrocolloids or starch, owing to their stabilization abilities, fat coating, and water binding, respectively. The review is aimed to summarize the effect of different fat substitutes on the processing quality, textural characteristics, and sensory properties of comminuted meat products with low lipid content.
Authors:Hanan M. Al-Yousef, Tawfeq A. Alhowiriny, Nasir A. Siddiqui, Perwez Alam, Wafaa Hassan Badr Hassan, and Musarat Amina
The aim of this study was to develop a validated high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) procedure for resolution of chemical constituents and identification and quantification of two selected natural anticancer compounds, stigmasterol (PD-1) and cinnamic acid (PD-2), in Pluchea dioscoridis chloroform fraction (PDCF). The chromatographic estimations were conducted on normal HPTLC (20 cm × 10 cm glass-backed silica gel 60 F254) plates with chloroform-methanol-acetic acid (93:5:2, V/V) used as the mobile phase. para-Anisaldehyde was used for the derivatization of the developed plate, and compact spots were scanned at λmax = 513 nm. A well resolved, compact, and intense peaks of PD-1 and PD-2 were recorded at RF = 0.57 and 0.19, respectively. The proposed analytical method for both biomarker compounds was found to be handy, simple, precise, linear (%RSD = 1.03–1.45), accurate (98.91–99.14%), reliable, and sensitive for the analysis of both bio-markers. The LOD/LOQ (ng) for PD-1 and PD-2 were recorded as 38.73/117.37 and 42.58/129.04, respectively, in the linearity range of 200–1400 ng per spot. The obtained result showed maximum quantities of PD-1 and PD-2 (5.36 and 16.98 μg mg−1, respectively). The developed HPTLC was found to be suitable for the routine analysis of these 2 biomarkers in the chloroform fraction of Pluchea dioscoridis and can be further employed in the process quality control of herbal formulations containing the said biomarkers.
This study proposes a re-evaluation of the thermal models for lithosphere in the main tectonic units of the extra-Carpathian area (Central Moesian Platform, Black Sea Block and East-European Platform) and a minimization of the uncertainties in the spatial distribution of the parameters required in thermal modelling, by assimilation of available information supplied by tomographic seismic data, using the seismic wave velocity — temperature conversion. The thermal structures of the three tectonic compartments are estimated through the extrapolation of the surface heat flow determinations and by thermal modelling simulating the main geodynamic processes affecting the lithospheric structures (sedimentation in the Focşani Depression, magma eruption in the Neogene volcanic belt and convergence process in the Eastern Carpathians). Forcing the 1D and/or 2D thermal models (heat flow derived geotherms) to fit the seismic constraints (seismic derived geotherms) the more plausible values for the thermal parameters are assessed. The rheological structures in the investigated zones are then obtained by valuating the developed thermal models and are interpreted in correlation with the characteristics of the seismic wave propagation process — quality factor of the medium
, provided by recent seismic studies.
Authors:J. Ahmadi, A. Pour-Aboughadareh, S. Fabriki-Ourang, and A. A. Mehrabi
Glutenin and gliadin subunits play a key role in flour processing quality by network formation in dough. Wild relatives of crops have served as a pool of genetic variation for decades. In this study, 180 accessions from 12 domesticated and wild relatives of wheat were characterized for the glutenin and gliadin genes with allele-specific molecular markers. A total of 24 alleles were detected for the Glu-A3 and Gli-2A loci, which out of 19 amplified products identified as new alleles. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 90 and 65% of the genetic diversity were partitioned within two Aegilops and Triticum genera and their species, respectively. Furthermore, all glutenin and gliadin analyzed loci were polymorphic, indicating large genetic diversity within and between the wild species. Our results revealed that allelic variation of Glu-3A and Gli-As.2 is linked to genomic constitutions so that, Ae. caudata (C genome), Ae. neglecta (UM genome), Ae. umbellulata (U genome) and T. urartu (Au genome) harbor wide variation in the studied subunits. Hence, these species can be used in wheat quality breeding programs.
The main criterion that determines the quality of durum wheat is the degree of suitability for pasta production (pasta-processing quality). In this regard, pigment content and the quantity of oxidative enzymes of durum wheat play important roles in the quality of pasta. It is now possible to examine these features and specify their effects using recently developed genetic markers and spectrophotometric measurement techniques. In the present study, LOX enzyme activity and pigment content are determined using molecular and biochemical scanning. According to the obtained results, Gediz-75, Gdem-12, Line-19, Zenit, Line-7 and Line-20 were determined as the most suitable lines or varieties for the production of quality pasta with regard to LOX enzyme activity. As for pigment content, Kyle, Zenit, Gdem-12, Gdem-2, TMB-1 and TMB-3 showed the highest potential for the production of yellow pasta. When pigment content and LOX enzyme activity were evaluated together, the potential of the Gediz-75, Gdem-12 and Zenit durum wheat varieties and lines to produce yellow pasta products was shown to be very high.
Authors:D. Horvat, N. Ðukić, D. Magdić, J. Mastilović, G. Šimić, A. Torbica, and D. Živančev
Glutenin polymers composed of HMW and LMW subunits are important contributors to the wheat end-use properties. Twenty-six winter wheat cultivars differing in bread processing quality were collected at the experimental fields of the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia and Institute of the Field and Vegetable Crops Novi Sad, Serbia, in 2008/2009 season. The HMW glutenins composition and glutenin proteins content were determined by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, respectively, with aim to determine the relationship between glutenin protein fractions and wheat quality properties. Significant differences were found between Croatian and Serbian cultivars in several quality attributes (GI, WA, DDT, DS and R/EXT) as well as in the content of total glutenins and LMW glutenins and GLI/GLU ratio. The dominant HMW subunits in analyzed cultivars were 2*, 7 + 9/7 + 8 and 5 + 10. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the presence of association between HMW glutenins composition and GI, dough E, R and R/EXT, while the glutenins quantitative data showed pronounced relation with P, DDT, DS, E, R and R/EXT. GLI/GLU ratio had the opposite effect on these parameters.
Authors:Ž. Kurtanjek, D. Horvat, G. Drezner, and D. Magdić
Gluten proteins composed of gliadins and glutenins are important contributors to the wheat quality properties. Twenty-eight winter wheat cultivars differing in bread processing quality were collected at the experimental fields of the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, in growing season 2006/2007.The HMW-GS composition and gliadin contents were determined by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, respectively, with the aim to determine their relationship with wheat quality properties. Based on gliadins and HMW-GS data for 28 wheat cultivars PLS models were developed for the prediction of 15 baking quality parameters.NIPALS algorithm was applied for the evaluation of the latent variables and regression coefficient parameters. The obtained 4-th order models have average coefficients of determination R2=0.80.Determined variable importance in projections (VIP) coefficients revealed that HMW-GS data have the dominant influence on the baking quality parameters. For extensographic and farinographic properties the Glu-D1 locus has the main VIP coefficient while Glu-B1 locus is the most important for the indirect quality parameters. The derived PLS models and VIP coefficients could be used in molecular based wheat selection and breeding program.