Berzsenyi, Z., Győrffy, B. 1995. Különböző növénytermesztési tényezők hatása a kukorica Termésére és termésstabilitására (Effect of various crop productionfactors on the yield and yield stability of maize
Different long-term experiments were carried on chernozem (Debrecen) and loamy (Hajdúböszörmény) soils. They included the most important agrotechnical, biological (hybrid) and agroecological (crop year, soil) factors in maize production. This paper evaluated the results of polyfactorial long-term experiments. For the maize the most favourable crop rotation was winter wheat (in a tri-culture) with an N 60–120, P2O5 60–70, K2O and 90–110 kg ha−1, and a density of 75–90,000 plants ha−1. The different input levels of maize crop management systems can modify an adaptive capacity to ecological conditions and the resilience of agro-ecosystems. The optimalization of agrotechnical elements reduces the harmful climatic effects. The yields of maize varied between 2–11 t ha−1 in extensive and 10–15 t ha−1 in intensive crop management systems, respectively.
The effect of sowing date, N fertiliser rate, plant density and genotype
on the yield stability of maize was analysed using 15-year data from a
5×4×5-factorial sowing date experiment, 35-year data from a two-factorial N
fertilisation experiment and 25-year data from a two-factorial plant density
experiment. Stability analysis on the experimental treatments was carried out
using the variance and regression methods. Among the variance parameters, the
ecovalence (W), the stability variance (σ²) and the yield stability
(YS) were calculated. Based on the data of the sowing date experiment the
optimum sowing date (Apr. 24) or sowing ten days later (May 5) were found to be
the most stable due to the low, non-significant values of the variance
parameters and the values close to unity for the regression coefficients (b).
Although early sowing (Apr. 14) led to a significantly higher yield than late
sowing, the yield stability was poorer for early sowing. In the long-term N
fertilisation experiment the variance parameters indicated the least yield
fluctuation at N rates of 80 and 160 kg ha-1, though the yield
stability (YS) parameter for the 240 kg ha-1 N rate was also above-average.
Regression analysis showed that the yield level and yield stability were the
same in all environments for the 160 and 240 kg ha-1 N rates. The
stability of the 80 kg ha-1 N rate was similar, but the yield level
was approx. 1.3 t ha-1 lower. The yield stability of the plant
density response of the maize hybrids was different in each maturity group (FAO
number). The stable plant density range was broadest (50-90 thousand plants ha-1)
in the FAO 200-299 group. As the vegetation period lengthened the stable plant
density range narrowed and shifted towards lower plant densities (for the FAO
400-499 and FAO 500-599 maturity groups: 50-70 thousand plants ha-1).
The variance and regression parameters of stability analysis both contributed
to the characterisation of the stability of the genotypes and cropping systems
investigated. It can be concluded from the results that high yields and yield
stability are not necessarily mutually exclusive.
Although Western Balkan countries are quite different, they can all be characterised by their one shared goal, to achieve the quickest possible accession to the European Union. Even though agriculture plays an important key role within all Western Balkan states, it’s share is the highest in Albania and only Serbia has a trade surplus. Land is a key production factor but all the analysed countries can be characterised by fragmented land structure and low average farm sizes. Mostly based on land ownership issues, a land reform index can be calculated. The major contribution of this paper to the literature is the reevaluated land reform index for the Western Balkans.
Authors:A. Megyes, J. Nagy, T. Rátonyi, and L. Huzsvai
The objectives of this study were to examine the correlation between factors of great significance for crop production, especially between irrigation and fertilization, and to evaluate the effects of irrigation and fertilization on maize yields over four growing seasons (2001-2004) in a long-term field experiment set up at the Látókép Experimental Station of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of Debrecen University. The results showed that irrigation and fertilization were strongly correlated with the yield. The effect of irrigation depended on the natural water and nutrient supplies of the soil, and on the specific fertilizer rates. The results indicated that both fertilization and irrigation had a significant effect on the yield. The correlation between the year and the crop production factors was also significant. The yield-increasing effect of irrigation and fertilization differed significantly in the experimental years.
Ferenc Jánossy was the most important Hungarian pioneer of surveys on long time series. In the 1960s he devised the famous theory of trendlines, which allowed him to forecast the great world economic recession of the 1970s a decade in advance. The best-known international authority on compiling historical time series is Angus Maddison, who prepared time series of the main demographic and macroeconomic indicators for 56 countries, from 1820 to the present day. Both scientists, whose survey method showed both a historical and a quantitative approach, reached the conclusion that human capital is the most important of production factors for securing long-term economic growth. The main purpose of this paper is to compare their results with the latest development, which is known as the “new growth theory”.
Authors:Saber Golkari, Jeannie Gilbert, Kirsten Slusarenko, W. Fernando, and Anita Brûlé-Babel
Fernandez, M.R., Selles, F., Gehl, D., DePauw, R.M., Zentner, R.P. 2005. Crop productionfactors associated with Fusarium head blight in spring wheat in eastern Saskatchewan. Crop Sci.