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Tirkkonen-Condit, S. 1989. Professional vs. Non-Professional Translation: A Think-Aloud Protocol Study. In: Séguinot, C. (ed.) The Translation Process. Toronto: H.G. Publications. 73

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This paper describes an empirical corpus analysis of English translation strategies for German non-SVO sentence beginnings in two small corpora, one of which is a corpus of 5 professional translations, the other a smaller corpus of 5 texts with 4 student versions for each text. For the analysis, two related but distinct methods of analysis were selected, one based on Rogers (2006), who investigated whether pragmatic word order or grammatical word order is given preference in English translations of German non-SVO sentences. The other is based on Firbas’s (1992) concept of functional sentence perspective as elaborated and operationalized by Doherty (1991, 2002), in order to determine whether communicative dynamism (CD) has been preserved in English translations. The analysis shows that professional translators achieve pragmatic word order in between 60–70% of cases, and maintain CD in an even higher percentage of cases (80–100%). Student translators, who are further differentiated as to English native speakers (EN), German native speakers (GN) or non-native speakers of either language (NN), vary more widely. GNs tend to achieve more pragmatic word order translations than ENs and even higher CD preservation, but there is also greater variety between different ENs. On average, functional sentence perspective is less well preserved overall in student translations than in professional translations.

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The paper briefly reviews the achievements and problems in Translation Studies (TS) and the practical tasks TS face at present: teaching translation on a much larger scale, educating teachers of translation, and teaching translation students to think and translate professionally and creatively. To deal with these tasks, the paper proposes a new cognitive model of translation as a professional and creative activity and its practical application. The model integrates two of the most prominent contemporary conceptions: Nikolay Ovchinnikov’s new cognitive theory of mind and Igor Mel’čuk and Jury Apresjan’s “Meaning ⇔ Text” model (of linguistic competence). The main idea of the paper is that translation is a creative linguistic activity and thus its professional acquisition needs professional and up-to-date (meta) linguistic knowledge. Special attention is paid to TS terminology, its organization and application, since the main practical burden of modern TS is to provide a teacher of translation with basic and practice-oriented linguistic and background professional knowledge and terminology helpful in encouraging students to think over translation problems consciously and purposefully.

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In this paper I will (1) look at the possibility of defining the translation prototype on theoretical grounds, (2) exemplify findings from empirical research that might help to identify the prototype more closely, and (3) consider the prospects for using the information about the prototype in the education of translators and interpreters. As Halverson (1998) has shown, contemporary theoretical views on translation can be seen as attempts to pin down features that seem to be in the centre of the prototype. Translation industry and empirical research, however, reveal phenomena in professional translation that cannot be explained in terms of relevance, skopos, equivalence, norms or sense. Rather than dismissing such features as marginal to translation, it might be useful to look at them in detail to see if indeed they belong to the prototype.

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Despite the economic importance of translation work, research can hardly keep pace with current developments, especially the use of electronic resources. A growing body of literature on writing processes in various languages and domains (e.g. journalism, education) has provided insight into how professionals and students use language and language resources. However, the questions of how translators use electronic, non-electronic, and internal linguistic resources and of how novices and experts differ in this regard remain to be investigated in detail. A multi-method approach called progression analysis, which combines ethnographic observation, interviews, computer logging, screenshot recordings, and cue-based retrospective verbalizations, has been used to explore differences between novice and expert journalists and lends itself ideally to the domain of translation. Progression analysis captures diverse aspects of translation processes as students and professionals translate and revise their texts and allows us to access their metalinguistic awareness in order to gain insight into their translation competence. The realization of this awareness in different strategies for translating to and from the translator’s dominant language is highlighted for the language combination German and English, and differences between novices’ and experts’ awareness of their revision processes and resource use are identified.

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The audience’s reluctance to wait for the international release of audiovisual products, coupled with the easy access to audiovisual material and subtitling tools on the Internet, has triggered an increase in the production and use of non-professional subtitling. However, up to now, we know little of how people receive the subtitles and how much they understand when watching products with non-professional subtitles. This paper presents the results of a study that explores the audience reception of subtitled TV series using professional and non-professional subtitling. Fifty-two participants were shown three excerpts from The Big Bang Theory with three subtitled versions: the professional version extracted from the Spanish DVD and two non-professional versions produced by two different nonprofessional subtitling communities. Data were collected through questionnaires, eye tracking and interviews. The results show that non-professional subtitles do not necessarily affect audience reception negatively. Further, both eye tracking and self-reported data yielded interesting insights into audience reception. Based on the findings, it is possible to say that there are non-professional translations that are as good as their professional counterparts.

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Absztrakt

A tanulmány célja annak bemutatása, hogy a japán szakirodalomban, a japán tolmácsok gyakorlatában, valamint a köznyelvben egységesen használt tolmács és tolmácsolás terminusok értelmezése milyen eltéréseket mutat a különböző kultúrájú beszélőközösségekben. Egy-egy terminus tartalma erőteljesen függ a beszélőközösség kulturális hagyományaitól. A japán szakirodalomban és köznyelvben a tolmácsolásra és a tolmács feladatára vonatkozó követelmények mások, mint Európában. Ez problémát jelenthet a tolmácsolási eseményeken résztvevőknek, mivel a megbízók és a felhasználók eltérő elvárásokat támaszthatnak a tolmáccsal szemben, különösen japán–magyar viszonylatban. Ezekre a különbségekre nem csak a résztvevők figyelmét kell felhívni, hanem már a tolmácsképzés folyamán is fel kell készíteni a hallgatókat.

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Science 447 480 Jääskeläinen, R. & Tirkkonen-Condit, S. 1991. Automatised Processes in Professional vs. Non-Professional Translation: A Think

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(MT) systems blurs the distinction between editing and post-editing and that between revision and (post)editing. Today there is less writing and less translation from scratch in professional translation than (post)editing of texts produced by/with MT

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, we are dealing here with two closely related languages, with similar of- and von- structures which readily allow literal translation. The last chapter in this Part is on normalization and shining-through in novice and professional translations, by

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