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Authors: E. Paszti-Gere, E. Csibrik-Nemeth, K. Szeker, R. Csizinszky, O. Palocz, O. Farkas and P. Galfi

, Farkas O, Galfi P: Metabolites of Lactobacillus plantarum 2142 prevent oxidative stress-induced overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in IPEC-J2 cell line. Inflammation 35(4), 1487–1499 (2012) Galfi P. Metabolites of

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Authors: Luis Antonio Bautista-Hernández, José Luis Gómez-Olivares, Beatriz Buentello-Volante and Victor Manuel Bautista-de Lucio

. Lu Y , Liu Y , Fukuda K , Nakamura Y , Kumagai N , Nishida T : Inhibition by triptolide of chemokine, proinflammatory cytokine, and adhesion molecule expression induced by lipopolysaccharide in corneal fibroblasts

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Authors: Bernadett Szita, Ildikó Baji and János Rigó Jr.

Kunz-Ebrecht, S. R., Mohamed-Ali, V., Feldman, P. J., et al.: Cortisol responses to mild psychological stress are inversely associated with proinflammatory cytokines. Brain Behav. Immunol., 2003, 17 (5

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response may indicate different consequences of the infection by this organism [ 3 ]. Several previous studies on the patient with H. pylori infection reported an increase in the proinflammatory cytokines of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-1RN, IL-8, and IL-10 in

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Authors: Vince Pongor, Gergely Toldi, Miklós Szabó and Barna Vásárhelyi

A központi idegrendszert érintő ischaemia-reperfúziós károsodás kialakulásában számos neurobiológiai folyamat vesz részt, amit terápiás hypothermia révén kedvezően lehet befolyásolni. A terápiás hypothermiát napjainkban a stroke, a perinatalis asphyxia, illetve a szívinfarktus-eredetű klinikai halál állapotával kapcsolatos neurológiai szövődmények kivédése érdekében egyre szélesebb körben alkalmazzák. A hypothermia idegrendszeri hatásai mellett szisztémás hatásokkal is rendelkezik. Befolyásolja az izmok, a cardiovascularis rendszer működését, elektroliteltéréseket okoz, befolyásolja a szisztémás anyagcserét, illetve több megfigyelés szerint a gyulladást is csökkenti. Összefoglaló közleményünkben a terápiás hypothermia szisztémás immunrendszerre gyakorolt hatásait tekintjük át. Sejtszintű vizsgálatok, állatkísérletes adatok és humán megfigyelések alapján a rövid távú (2–4 órás) hypothermia az antiinflammatorikus citokinek szintjét emeli, illetve csökkenti a proinflammatorikus citokinek szintjét. Tartós hypothermia (>24 óra) esetén azonban a proinflammatorikus citokinszintek emelkednek. A hypothermia csökkenti továbbá a lymphocytaproliferációt és gátolja az endotoxinnal aktivált lymphocytákban a HLA-DR expresszióját. Ezek az adatok jelzik a szisztémásan alkalmazott terápiás célú hypothermia immunmoduláns hatását. Azt, hogy az immunmoduláció milyen mértékben járul hozzá a központi idegrendszer védelméhez, további vizsgálatoknak kell kimutatnia. Orv. Hetil., 2011, 152, 575–580.

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Pentoxifylline (PTX, a methylxanthine derivative) has been found to interrupt early gene activation for tumour necrosis factor, interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tissue factor production and to improve survival from experimental sepsis. During endotoxaemia, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) and proinflammatory cytokines trigger the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) via the tissue factor-dependent pathway of coagulation. The present study was undertaken to determine whether pentoxifylline could prevent coagulation disturbances in LPS-treated rabbits. Endotoxaemia was induced with E. coli lipopolysaccharide in New Zealand White rabbits. Forty rabbits were used and divided into four equal groups. Group 1 served as a control group; Group 2: lipopolysaccharide was injected intravenously, Group 3: pentoxifylline was injected intraperitoneally, Group 4: lipopolysaccharide and pentoxifylline were injected simultaneously. Blood samples were collected 6 h after the treatments. In rabbits with endotoxin-induced DIC, platelet count, leukocyte count, percentage of differential leukocyte values, fibrinogen level, antithrombin III (AT-III) and protein C (PC) activity were decreased. Moreover, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) were prolonged when compared to the control group. In conclusion, haemostatic disturbances associated with endotoxin-induced DIC were moderately suppressed by the administration of PTX.

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Authors: Basak Hanedan, Akin Kirbas, Fatih Mehmet Kandemir, Mustafa Sinan Aktas and Ahmet Yildiz

It is known that inflammatory organ damages due to various agents, such as microorganisms including mycoplasmas, lead to oxidative stress. Nitric oxide (NO) functions as an antimicrobial agent, and arginase decreases proinflammatory cytokine release. There are very few studies on arginase activity, NO level and oxidative stress status in mycoplasmal infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate erythrocyte arginase activity, plasma NO level and oxidative stress status in sheep with contagious agalactia. The study material consisted of 10 healthy sheep and 14 sheep with contagious agalactia characterised by mastitis, arthritis and keratoconjunctivitis. Erythrocyte arginase activity, plasma NO, malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant capacity (TOC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were measured. Significant decreases in erythrocyte arginase activity and plasma TAC level (P < 0.001), and significant increases in plasma NO, MDA and TOC levels (P < 0.001) were found in the diseased sheep as compared with the healthy animals. This study suggests that contagious agalactia may cause oxidative stress due to increased plasma MDA and TOC levels and decreased plasma TAC levels, and that the decrease in erythrocyte arginase activity and increase in plasma NO level may contribute to the elimination of mycoplasmal agents causing contagious agalactia.

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Sex steroid levels increase during sexual maturation and cause alterations in many physiological and morphological traits. Some of these changes may be connected with age-dependent and intersexual differences in the immune system. This topic is still insufficiently understood, especially in avian species, partially due to methodological limitations. In this study we measured the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18) and chemokines [K60 (IL-8-like chicken chemokine — CXCLi1), CAF (IL-8-like chicken chemokine — CXCLi2), and K203] in mononuclear cells isolated from blood and spleen after in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Samples were collected from chickens at two ages (from pullets before sexual maturity and from sexually mature egglaying hens). After LPS stimulation, a substantial increase was recorded in the gene expression of IL-6 and K203. All other measured genes were expressed at low levels in mononuclear cells irrespective of cell sources. We found a trend toward intersexual differences in K203 expression, but the expression of other cytokines and chemokines did not differ between the two sexes. The effect of stimulation was more pronounced in monocytes than in spleen macrophages, mainly in IL-6, IL-1β and K203 gene expression. Our findings represent a basis for further studies on the effects exerted by sexual hormones on the immune phenotype of birds.

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Spondyloarthropathies consist of chronic inflammatory disorders genetically linked with each other through HLA-B27 molecules, and are connected with the destruction of periarticular bone and also with systemic bone loss in many cases. Expected molecular mechanisms behind these conditions overlap the functions of Hsp70s, a group of major molecular chaperones and cytokines. Hsp70s may control disease progression via inhibition of unfolded HLA-B27 protein accumulation and alteration of ER stress signaling. Further, Hsp70s may improve disease related malfunction of antigen presentation, and may induce nitric oxide (NO) release from macrophages which probably protective against spondyloarthropathies as well. Considering premised possible influence of Hsp70s on core mechanisms of spondyloarthropathies it may be expected that, increased expression of Hsp70s advantageously retards disease progress, or may lead to remission. On the other hand Hsp70s as danger signals induce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines playing major role in the progression of spondyloarthropathy induced bone loss. Consequently, the effect of Hsp70s on the progression of spondyloarthropathic bone loss is “Janus-faced” in some respect: increase of Hsp70s’ level is likely advantageous regarding to the core of disorder; but it may facilitate existing bone resorption processes.

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Authors: Marianna Juhász, Balázs Pálóczi, Tamás Végh, Judit Bedekovics, Melinda Bán and Béla Fülesdi

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Tüdőműtéteket követően gyakori, hogy a beteg légúti váladékának mennyisége megnő, ami légzési nehezítettséget, radiológiai eltérést okoz. Ugyanakkor a beteg anamnézisétől függően eltérő mértékű cardialis terheléshez is vezethet, mely súlyos esetben ritmuszavar vagy akár pulmonalis pangás formájában nyilvánulhat meg. A ritmuszavar kiváltó oka viszont egy kezdődő gyulladásos folyamat is lehet, amely magas proinflammatorikus citokinszinttel társul. Citokinkiáramlást azonban az erek falának megfeszülése is képes okozni, aminek a perioperatív időszakban lehetséges gyakori oka a thrombus okozta érfalérintettség. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(28): 1158–1162.

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