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253 268 Bates, L.W.; Waldren R.P.; Teare L.D. 1973. Rapid determination of proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil 39

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contents . Pak. J. Bot. 42 , 559 – 565 . 3. Ashraf , M. , Foolad , M. R. ( 2007 ) Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance

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. Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance . Environ. Exp. Bot. 59 : 206 – 216 . Benderradji , L. , Brini , F. , Amar , S.B. , Kellou , K

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In this study we examined the proline content of 143 honey samples with different flower origin. Some of the samples originated from commercial trade, the others came directly from beekeepers. We measured the proline content of beekeepers’ honeys and the received results were compared to the results of commercial honeys. The effects of added sugar products and heating on the quality parameters were also studied.

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Mechanisms involved in salt tolerance urge exploration and investigation of genotypic variation to assist future breeding programs. Comparative examination of ten wheat cultivars for salt tolerance and their response towards proline-seed-priming was performed. Exposure of wheat seedlings to salinity resulted in prominent reduction in root and shoot growth attributes of all cultivars. Furthermore, decrease in the chlorophyll contents was evident although this varied among cultivars. Wheat seedlings grown from proline pre-treated seeds exhibited improved photosynthetic pigments, besides this response was also cultivar and concentration dependent. Generally, salt stressed plants exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activities. Proline priming significantly influenced antioxidant activities, however, its magnitude varied. The peroxidase activity varied among wheat cultivars that were evident from the analysis of POD activity on Native-PAGE gel. Salinity caused the accumulation of Na+ in the roots and the magnitude of Na+ translocation to the shoot was cultivar dependent. Similarly, K+ uptake and its distribution among root and shoot varied. Priming treatments affected ion distribution of Na+ and K+ but inter-cultivar variations were evident. Conclusively, all the cultivars investigated exhibited differential response to salinity and proline seed pre-treatments. However, the proline-priming mediated improvements in growth and antioxidant enzyme activities contributed to stress tolerance which partly relied on the ability of the plant to uptake sodium and its partitioning in the roots. Of the cultivars tested, Faisalabad-08 and Bhakhar-2002 were ranked as relatively salt tolerant and the cvs. AARI-10, MH-97 and Auqab-2000 as relatively salt sensitive.

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Plants exposed to stress undergo changes in their metabolism in order to adapt with the changes in their environment. Salt stress has been attributed to some physiological and biochemical alterations in plants. Proline accumulation relative water content (RWC) and super oxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity were analysed in a salt-sensitive (Lycopersicon esculentum) and salt-tolerant Lycopersicon pennellii), under different NaCl concentrations. The findings in our study showed that RWC and SOD activity decreased and proline level increased in salt-sensitive L. esculentum compared to L. pennellii. Proline level seems to be a criterion in the evaluation of plants salt tolerance. Increased SOD activity can be involved in defence the antioxidative stress.

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Introduction The imino acid proline plays a decisive role in the protection against cell injuries caused by freezing and dehydration in diatoms and several higher plants (see [ 1 , 2 ] and references therein). This also

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charge transfer is possible. Proline is an abundant amino acid in collagen and is exceptional among the amino acids because it is the only one in which the amine group is part of a pyrrolidine ring making it rigid and directional in biological systems [ 3

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Alia Saradhi, P. P., Mohanty P. (1997) Involvement of proline in protecting thylakoid membranes against free radical-induced photodamage. J. Photochem. Photobiol. 38, 253–257. Mohanty P

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determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil 39 , 205–207. Teare I. D. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies Plant

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