The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), using spectral analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV) in the model of partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO) in rats treated with selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID): piroxicam (PRX) or meloxicam (MLX), and following administration of PGF2a prostaglandin analogue (Enzaprost F5). Neither the use of PGF2a analogue nor of MLX, caused significant changes in the HRV spectrum (except for HRV spectrum total power reduction with MLX). The use of PRX caused reduction of the total power and powers of all components of the HRV spectrum (except for VLF). Moreover, increased nLF and reduced nHF were observed. The obtained results suggest that the total prostaglandin synthesis block with a non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor (PRX) results in reduced ANS total activity, with decreased parasympathetic activity and a relative sympathetic predominance. The preferential cyclooxygenase-2 block (MLX) caused reduction of the total ANS activity as well, however with no clear disproportion of any part of the ANS. Therefore, prostaglandin synthesis inhibition and associated decrease of parasympathetic activity may constitute an additional and favourable feature of NSAID pharmacodynamics in the treatment of BPH.
The role of oxytocin (OT) in the regulation of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α ) secretion during luteolysis in gilts was studied using a highly specific OT antagonist (CAP-581). In Experiment 1 gilts on Days 14 to 19 of the oestrous cycle in Latin square design were used, to determine the dose and time of application of OT and CAP. In Group I (n = 6) gilts were treated intravenously with saline or with 10, 20 and 30 IU of OT. Concentrations of the main PGF2α metabolite i.e. 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prosta-glandin F2α (PGFM) were measured in blood samples as uterine response to the treatment. Twenty IU of OT was the most effective to stimulate PGFM release and this dose was used after CAP treatment in gilts of Groups II, III and IV. Gilts of Group II (n = 3) were injected into the uterine horns (UH) with saline (5 ml/horn) or CAP (2 mg, 3 mg and 4 mg; half dose/horn) and OT was injected (i.v.) 30 min thereafter. Any of the CAP doses given into the UH affected PGFM plasma concentrations stimulated by OT. In Group III (n = 4) gilts were infused (i.v.) for 30 min with CAP (9 mg, 14 mg and 18 mg/gilt) followed by 20 IU of OT. All doses of CAP effectively inhibited OT-stimulated PGF2α release, therefore 9 mg was selected for the further studies. Gilts of Group IV (n = 4) received OT 4, 6 and 8 h after CAP to define how long CAP blocks the OT receptors. Concentrations of PGFM increased after any of this period of time. Thus, we concluded that 9 mg of CAP infused every 4 h will effectively block OT receptors. In Experiment 2, gilts (n = 4) received CAP as a 30-min infusion every 4 h on Days 12-20 of the oestrous cycle. Control gilts (n = 3) were infused with saline. CAP infusions diminished the height of PGFM peaks (P < 0.05). Frequency of the PGFM (P < 0.057) and OT (P < 0.082) peaks only tended to be lower in the CAP-treated gilts. Peripheral plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and oestradiol-17β (E2) and the time of luteolysis initiation as measured by the decrease of P4 concentration were the same in CAP-and saline-treated gilts. The macroscopic studies of the ovaries in gilts revealed lack of differences between groups. We conclude that OT is involved in the secretion of luteolytic PGF2α peaks but its role is limited to controlling their height and frequency. Blocking of OT receptors did not prevent luteolysis in sows.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of improving the synchronisation of lambing after oestrus synchronisation and artificial insemination (AI). To this end, low doses of dexamethasone 21-isonicotinate (DEX) alone or in combination with prostaglandin F
(PG) were used in five treated groups (n = 20 each) and one control group (n = 136) of Chios ewes. On day 143 of pregnancy 1.5 mg DEX was given in Group 5, while on day 146 the following treatments were applied: 0.0375 mg PG in Groups 4 and 5, and 1, 1.5 and 2 mg of DEX in ewes of Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The control ewes received no treatment. The 1.5 and 2 mg dose of DEX was more effective in synchronising labour as regards the treatment to lambing interval and the proportion of ewes that gave birth within 3 days. However, obstetrical manipulations were needed, and dead lambs were born when 2 mg DEX was used. It was concluded that lambing can be safely synchronised in Chios ewes with 1.5 mg DEX given on day 146, without affecting the viability of lambs and without parturition complications.
Cyclopentenonic derivatives of prostaglandins are able to interfere at different levels with virus infection but the complex mechanism of their antiviral effect is still unresolved. As the antiviral activity was shown to be influenced by the cyclopentenonic structure, the interaction with biomimetic membrane of two types of prostaglandin having different antiviral activity were studied by thermal technique and completed with epifluorescence microscopy. The surface-pressure vs. molecular area isotherms showed an increase in the lateral packing density of the liquid-crystalline phases in the presence of prostaglandin A1-type, whereas the prostaglandin E1-type seems to penetrate without producing any significant modifications in the molecular organization of the biomimetic membrane.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether intravaginal prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α) would be effective for the treatment of metritis or pyometra in the bitch. Seventeen bitches with metritis or pyometra were treated with PGF2α. Prostaglandin F2α(150 (g/kg body weight) was administered once or twice daily by infusing 0.3 ml per 10 kg body wt into the vaginal lumen. Bitches were also treated with amoxicillin (15 mg/kg body wt/48 h) and/or gentamicin (4 mg/kg body wt/day) administered as intramuscular (i.m.) injections. Fifteen bitches were treated successfully with intravaginally administered PGF2αfor 3 to 12 days and with intramuscularly administered antibiotics for 4 to 12 days. Success of treatment was judged by cessation of vaginal discharge, the absence of fluid in the uterus as determined by ultrasonography, and the overall health status of the animal. As two bitches with pyometra showed clinical deterioration in spite of medical treatment, ovariohysterectomy was performed after the first and the second treatment, respectively. No side effects (salivation, vomiting, diarrhoea, hyperpnoea, ataxia, urination, anxiety, pupillary dilatation followed by contraction) were observed after PGF2αtreatment. The disease did not recur during the subsequent oestrous cycles within 12 months after the initial treatment. The results demonstrate that intravaginal administration of PGF2αwas effective in 13 dogs (86.6%) with metritis or pyometra, and caused no side effects. Although the study was based on a relatively small number of cases, it is concluded that prostaglandin F2αcan be a useful means of treating bitches with metritis or pyometra. However, in severe cases of pyometra ovariohysterectomy is needed.
Clinical testing of a new RIA kit for the determination of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1
) has been performed. The statistical characteristics of the calibration curves, the intra- and interassay variation coefficients and the recovery studies point to the reliability and applicability of this test. Using this test. Using this RIA-kit, the urinary 6-keto-PGF1
content could be detected without applying a prior extraction procedure and chromatography, and the results obtained (urinary excretion of 6-keto-PFG1
of control subjects and of patients with chronic glomerular diseases) corresponded well with various other methods.
In this preliminary study, we determined the effect of a modified method involving the administration of two low doses of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) at an interval of 24 h on luteolysis in dairy cows, and compared it with the standard single-dose method. Twenty-six cows were assigned to three groups treated with two low doses (TLD group, n = 10), one standard dose (SD group, n = 10), and one low dose (OLD group, n = 6) on day 9 to 10 of the oestrous cycle (day 0 = the day of PGF2α administration). Their serum progesterone (P4) levels and corpus luteum (CL) sizes were measured daily from day 0 to 4 to assess CL regression. The results indicated that the proportion of complete luteolysis, indicating a P4 value ≤ 1 ng/mL on day 3, was higher in the TLD group (100.0%) than in the SD (60.0%) and OLD (66.7%) groups. Ultrasonically detected changes in the CL area correlated with the shifts in the P4 values in both the TLD and the SD groups. The remaining CL area was significantly smaller in the TLD group (17.8% ± 3.3%) than in the SD or OLD group on day 4. Thus, we concluded that the proportion of luteolysis in cows was increased with two low doses of PGF2α as compared to a single PGF2α dose, indicating the necessity of the second dose of PGF2α. However, further studies with larger sample sizes in the field are required.
Little is known about the inflammatory response of the endometrium in repeat-breeding cows with subclinical endometritis (SE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS 2), prostaglandin F2α synthase (PTGFS) and prostaglandin E2 microsomal synthase 1 (mPTGES 1) in the endometrium of repeat-breeding cows with and without SE. SE was diagnosed cytologically using the cytobrush method, with the threshold being set at 5% polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Biopsy samples were obtained from the endometrium of repeat-breeding cows with SE (n = 10) and without SE (n = 10). The mRNA expression of the synthases was evaluated using qRT-PCR. Significantly higher (P < 0.05) expression of the PTGS 2 gene was detected in the repeat breeders with SE, whereas there was no significant difference in the expression of PTGFS and mPTGES 1 mRNAs between repeatbreeding cows with SE and those without it (P > 0.05). Our study confirms that increased endometrial expression of the PTGS 2 gene is involved in the inflammatory response in repeat breeders.