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The recent global financial crisis has resulted in a new creative set of economic policies. The justifi- cation for the unconventional policy response was based on the implicit assumption that the departure from the norms of macroeconomic policies would be temporary. This detour has lasted longer than expected. Now that the process of normalization has started in the United States and is likely to be followed (albeit in some delay) in Europe, it would be important for policy makers to emphasize that the unconventional set of economic policies were just a detour from the longstanding convention rather than representing a new paradigm. The experience of the crisis and the post-crises years should be recorded in history as refl ecting a period during which new and important policy chapters were drafted. These chapters should be added to the corpus of knowledge of macroeconomic theory and policy. The new chapters contain important lessons that should definitely not be forgotten once the crisis is over. They should be added to, but not replace, the old textbooks.

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Gazdasági globalizáció és fenntarthatóság

Economic Globalisation and Sustainability

Educatio
Author:
Miklós Losoncz

A tanulmány a gazdasági globalizáció legújabb fejleményeit (a nemzetközi erőviszonyok átalakulása, a klímaváltozás, a koronavírus-járvány és Oroszország Ukrajna elleni háborúja) következményeit, dinamikáját és korlátait elemzi a hosszabb távú trendek és a fenntarthatóság kontextusában. Fő következtetése szerint a globalizációs folyamat lassul, új típusa formálódik, deglobalizáció viszont nem valószínű. A tanulmány tudományosan újszerű eleme a globalizáció dinamikájának és hajtóerőinek új megközelítésben való bemutatása, valamint fenntarthatóságának értelmezése.

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. Botos , B. ( 2009 ): Válságkezelés és protekcionizmus [Crisis management and protectionism] . Külgazdaság 53 ( 5 – 6 ): 91 – 105 . Cassirer , E. ( 1921 ): Kants Leben und Lehre . Berlin

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. London: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 194–221. Daianu , D. ( 2017 ): The New Protectionism . World Commerce Review, Spring

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of the Visegrád countries’ companies on Europe, the poor market knowledge, economic protectionism and over-bureaucratisation of public services in Brazil, including the complicated administrative and taxation processes. Nevertheless, other factors

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, sociology adds passions other than the economic, and various forms of irrationality (non-logical behavior in Pareto's terminology). Pareto's contributions to economic sociology can be illustrated by his explanation of why protectionism can

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residents and nature by design. 2.3 Protectionism Historical cities are host to exciting historical site, outstanding heritage buildings and unique local cultures: there represent a country and

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globalization is equally as spectacular in its progress as in its incompleteness, in addition to being distorted and unfair ( Nuti 2009c ). In his view, globalization was incomplete because of the maintenance of many forms, often intense, of protectionism and

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competitive disadvantages that companies try to counteract through OFDI. According to them extremely high protectionism and corruption in the home market led to resource constraints and enhance escapist OFDI. Some studies assessed the level of

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‒ Kozhevnikova 2013 ). This is similar to systems in continental countries, yet the labour market is not very flexible due to employment protectionism. However, the system is not so efficient at decreasing poverty. Welfare is mainly directed towards generous

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