Authors:Z. Hegedűs, Z. Szentpétery, K. Kassai, and et al.
protein and amino acids of wheat during grain filling.) Növénytermelés , 45 , 255-263.
Az őszi búza tartalékfehérjéinek és aminosav-összetételének tanulmányozása a szemkialakulás során. (Studying of pooled protein and amino
Authors:D. Sternik, P. Staszczuk, J. Pękalska, G. Grodzicka, B. Gawdzik, J. Osypiuk-Tomasik, and P. Witer
The adsorption of a polar (water)
and a non-polar (n-octane) liquid on silica
gels, modified by adsorption of proteins, has been studied by thermal analysis.
Silica gels with physically adsorbed BSA and ovalbumin layers were used. Thermodesorption
energies were determined from Q-TG and Q-DTG curves recorded under quasi-equilibrium
conditions. Significant differences in liquid desorption were observed from
the surfaces due to heterogeneous changes (energetic and geometrical) as a
result of modification. These results are compared with those obtained for
the samples heated at 160C for 1 h.
Authors:M. Tomczyńska-Mleko, W. Gustaw, T. Piersiak, K. Terpiłowski, B. Sołowiej, M. Wesołowska-Trojanowska, and S. Mleko
The objective of the research was to obtain aerated gels by magnesium and iron(II) ion induced gelation of preheated whey protein isolate dispersions. Preliminary research allowed finding conditions of the pH, protein, and ion concentrations to produce aerated gels capable of holding air bubbles. A novel method applying gelation and aeration process simultaneously was used. Aeration using a laboratory mixer at 2000 r.p.m. produced stronger aerated gels than using a homogenizer at 8000 r.p.m. The gelation process was monitored using an ultrasound viscometer and a constant increase of dynamic viscosity was noted. A different aerated gel microstructure was observed for magnesium and iron(II) induced gels, which probably resulted in differences in the texture and viscosity, as well. The aeration process decreased hardness. In some cases texture parameters correlated with the viscosity measured using an ultrasound viscometer. Aerated whey protein gels could be applied as matrices for food applications or to controlled release of active ingredients.
The use of Fourier-transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) to measure the content of protein, lipid and sugar contents of bakery products was investigated. The samples were dried, homogenized, sieved and measured in the wavelength range of 780–2500 nm. The calibration was based on partial least squares (PLS) regression with cross-validation. The performance of the final model was evaluated according to root mean square of cross-validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of estimation (RMSEE) and the determination coefficient (R2).The developed models use the ranges of 1100–1245 nm and 1590–2600 nm for protein determination, 1330–1840 nm and 2170–2350 nm for lipid, 1400–1630 nm, 2000–2170 nm and 2230–2570 nm for sugar determination, respectively. Protein, lipid and sugar could be determined directly with R2 values of 98.93, 99.07 and 98.81, and RMSECV values of 0.16 m/m%, 0.79 m/m% and 0.28 m/m%, respectively. It can be concluded that FT-NIR spectroscopy can be used for the routine determination of protein, lipid and sugar content of bakery products and it can contribute to the estimation of calorie content in a fast and non-destructive way.
Authors:D. Ng’uni, N.G. Shargie, S.C. Andersson, A. van Biljon, and M.T. Labuschagne
Sorghum is, globally, the fifth most important cereal after maize, rice, wheat and barley. The crop is tolerant to semi-arid and arid climatic conditions. Twenty-five sorghum varieties grown in South Africa were evaluated in the field at two locations with the objective of identifying high yielding, micronutrient dense genotypes. Two clusters were formed based on measured traits. Tx430 (G13), CIMMYT entry 49 (G12), E35-1 (G16), Framida (G19), IS1934 (G7) and IS14380 (G14) formed cluster A. The rest of the sorghum entries formed cluster B. Wide variation was exhibited for grain yield, ranging from 1.12 t ha−1 to 3.96 t ha−1 with a mean grain yield of 2.83 tha−1. Analysis of variance also revealed significant differences among the varieties for protein, total starch, amylose and mineral content. Two varieties, Tx430 and AR-3048 exhibited very high protein content. Fe content ranged from 43.7 mg kg−1 (Kuyuma) to 61.2 mg kg−1 (IS14380) with an average of 50.5 mg kg−1. Zn content ranged from 13.7 mg kg−1 (Macia) to 23.4 mg kg−1 (Tx430) with a mean of 17.4 mg kg−1. Grain yield was significantly positively correlated with plant height, panicle weight and thousand kernel weight. Significant positive correlations were observed between Fe content and Zn, Cu, Mn and P. This data indicated that simultaneous genetic improvement of sorghum varieties for Fe and other important minerals, and starch content in the same genetic background was possible, without a penalty to grain yield.